Friday, March 29, 2019
Value of Knowledge Produced with Difficulty
Value of Knowledge Produced with DifficultyIt is lonesome(prenominal) companionship produced with operosey that we truly value. To what extent do you agree with this disputation?IntroductionAcross different friendship aras, from the internal sciences to the cheats, defining experience produced with bother is difficult. Truly, interpretations are subject specific. In the sciences, sousedly observeing the scientific method and developing a sophisticated, valid theory or lay requires a high direct of reasoning and experimentation, which is arguably always a difficult process. In the artifices, it is far more challenging to ca-ca familiarity as being produced easily or with difficulty. In this essay, knowledge in the arts is specified to its production. Determining the degree of difficulty involved is subjective, and generally depends on which aspects of knowledge are involved in the production of the optic arts does the production of the score involve technical s kill, procedural, and conceptual knowledge? To what extent are reason, emotion, and sense perception involved?In this essay, I aim to show that knowledge produced with difficulty is cherished to a lesser extent in the innate sciences. In the arts, it is two knowledge produced with quench and difficulty which is accepted by consensus and valued. Hence, one netnot state that only knowledge produced with difficulty is valued.To what extent is knowledge produced with difficulty valued in the natural sciences?Knowledge produced with a lack of difficulty is valued in the scientific community. There is no immenseer supporter of this claim than physicist Richard Feynman, a lancinate populariser of a simple approach to natural philosophy. Feynmans widely used in writing(p) representation, known as Feynman diagrams, visualise the rear formula of quantum electrodynamics in a simple, mathematical manner. Feynman first introduced the diagrams as a bookkeeping device for simplifying ex tensive calculations (Kaiser 4). Using stick-figure lines, Feynman brought back Newtons fundamental approach to the problem, with let on the complicated knowledge found on new techno transparent advances. The mathematical nature of Feynmans diagrams approaches the complexity of quantum physics with simple logic. An axiomatic system can be expressed in the simplest of call, yet cadaver valid, sophisticated, and with a high level of reasoning. The advantage of Feynman diagrams reside in their relief they are fundamental to our understanding of the complexity of the natural world, whilst not being produced with great difficulty. However, is it possible that Feynmans rare genius renders him an riddance? Arguably, intuition and a natural ability to see simple patterns in complex problems led him to produce this model. Regardless, the natural sciences are based on mathematics. Successful mathematical knowledge represents a pattern in its simplest form. scientific models aim to accu rately represent the natural world in an perceivable manner. Therefore, Feynman diagrams, which are based on mathematical, simplistic knowledge are a valued model. Hence, knowledge produced with simplicity is valued in the sciences as salutary.Yet, simplicity in the natural sciences may also lead to knowledge which is discarded. An eccentric of this are superseded, simple scientific theories, much(prenominal) as the Fleischmann-Pons experiment in the 1980s, which lead to the apparent baring of cold partnership. Involving electrolysis, it was a dream discovery a simple experiment with results that reshape our understanding (Cold Fusion A Case Study for Scientific port 1). Unlike Feynmans diagrams, the experiment was hard faulted in almost all stages of the scientific method. Fleischmann-Pons results were unable to be replicated and because not verified. The scientists were criticised to stomach a lack of knowledge of physics and refused to join with experts, limiting their access to shared and past knowledge on fusion (Cold Fusion A Case Study for Scientific Behavior 5). Furthermore, in a rush to publish, they did not conduct simple and obvious experiments which would have provided key evidence to support or counteract their speculation, and there was a lack of repeatability (Cold Fusion A Case Study for Scientific Behavior 7). Hence, the Fleischmann-Pons experiment was simple, yet invalid, as in their simplicity, the scientists did not rigorously follow the scientific method. But, was the root of their problems solely the simplicity of their experiment? The experiment was influenced by extraneous variables such as flaws in reasoning, peer review, and observation. Faults in the scientific method effect both simple and difficult experiments. Therefore, my claim remains valid predominantly, knowledge in the natural sciences is valued due to its logical simplicity, leading to applicability, but is usually the result of a detailed, systematic suit tha t could be seen as difficult.To what extent is knowledge produced with difficulty valued in the arts?Knowledge in the arts is valued regardless and perhaps because of, its lack of difficulty. As Degas said, painting is easy when you dont know how, and arguably, capital of Mississippi Pollocks action paintings have a lack of naturalistic, formal qualities, and composition which antecedently defined painting (Edgar Degas. 1). Pollock defied consensus through his cathartic process in which he lay a canvas on the floor and slop paint with hardened brushes. Pollock relied on emotion, intuition, and a lack of reason, as he states, when Im painting, Im not aware of what Im doing (Jackson Pollock Biography, Art, and Analysis of Works. 1). Furthermore, Pollock produced procedural, conceptual, theoretical, and ethnical knowledge, as he is seen as a key figure of abstract expressionism. However, is this solely due to his artistic skill and knowledge thereof? In the case of Pollock, the role of circumstance could be considered. Peggy Guggenheim, who acted as his patron, contributed heavily to his success (How Peggy Guggenheim make Jackson Pollock. 1). Furthermore, Pollock successfully read the art shot at that specific time. His understanding of the need to break consensus in the arts post-war demonstrates strong cultural knowledge. Hence, Pollock should not be treated as an exception. Defying consensus by implementing a lack of difficulty praised by old-masters in terms of reason, technical and procedural knowledge, has often characterised greatness in the arts. It is the nature of art to redefine itself. As the viewer, we ache for the new and exciting, whereas the artist yearns to stand out from others. Therefore, this claims supports my thesis.However, a counterclaim to this idea is that there are certain, rigid qualities that define a truly great artwork, being that it is only knowledge produced with great difficulty in the arts that we value. An example of this Th odore Gricaults 1819 muddle of the Medusa, an impressive oil painting depicting the aftermath of a shipwreck. Gricaults interviewed survivors, visited morgues and filled his flat with body parts, including a severed head (Peregrine 1), and retrace the original raft itself (Puchko 1). The project took a total of eighteen months. Arguably, the famous status of the work is reliant on Gricaults research, being a combination of sense perception and emotion, as he yearned to paint the dramatic, pictorial fifty-fiftyt as the Old Masters might have done, release nothing to chance or fantasy (Christiansen 1), indicating the involvement of reason, too. The accuracy of the work required great technical skill and procedural knowledge, as well as a stroke of rare genius. Today, the work is regarded as an figure of speech of Romanticism (Laborie 1) due to Gricaults undoubtedly difficult process of knowledge production. However, initially, the painting failed to bring him the public succe ss he craved (Christiansen 1). Therefore, can one truly say the work was always valued by consensus? The original Medusa remained a politically sensitive matter, and its image was far too disconcerting and repulsive to popularise Gricault (Christiansen 1). Therefore, in Gricaults and the communitys eyes, the work originally failed and was not always valued, despite the difficulty of producing the work. It is reductionist to state that it is only knowledge produced with difficulty that is valued. Hence, this counterclaim does not undermine my thesis.Conclusion Overall, it is not only knowledge produced with difficulty that is valued. In the arts, both works produced with ease and difficulty are valid, whereas in the sciences, it is often the simplest theories are often valued the most. Logical induction and valid reasoning is important to knowledge in the natural sciences. Commonly, the simplest theories and experiments can provide this, as they idiom fundamental, valid principles and facts which cannot be disproven, such as mathematical knowledge. Even experiments undermining my thesis, such as Fleischmann-Pons, contribute to science through their simplicity. According to Karl Poppers theorem of falsifiability, disproving a hypothesis is central to the natural sciences. Valuable lessons can be learnt from Fleischmann-Pons, such as the importance of the scientific method. Hence, regardless of its validity, knowledge produced with simplicity is valued in the sciences. Contrarily, in the arts, the production of knowledge is difficult to pinpoint as difficult or simple. Arguably, one could state than any world of an artwork involves a difficult technique, high reasoning, or specialist sense perception in their eyes. Subsequently, it is both knowledge produced with ease and difficulty that is valued in the arts. However, does this make all art a masterpiece? If I say the creation of an artwork was difficult for me, does this make me an old-master, and put me on the same level as Gricault?The implications of my thesis in terms of the natural sciences is that if knowledge produced with difficulty is valued to a lesser extent, does this diminish knowledge produced with difficulty? Arguably, invalid knowledge produced with difficulty is valued we learn from mistakes in their extensive, rigorous reasoning or methodology and produce valid knowledge from these improvements. Therefore, even invalid knowledge produced with difficulty should not be entirely discarded. In the arts, stating that both knowledge produced with or without difficulty is valued leaves us with a very broad and inclusive definition of what makes art great. This minimises the role of gatekeepers of knowledge, and leads us to movement consensus in the arts. Yet, if ways of knowing- in Pollocks case intuition, in Gricaults sense perception- determine the value of art, this implies that art is a way of idea rather than a form of expression. Furthermore, if, as in Pollocks case, art is valued due to it breaking previous consensus, this severely undermines the role of consensus. This leads me to wonder if we should question the value of art at all, and if we should instead simply create art for arts sake.Word Count 1599Works CitedEdgar Degas. BrainyQuote.com. Xplore Inc, 2016. 17 December 2016.How Peggy Guggenheim Made Jackson Pollock. Phaidon. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Dec. 2016.Jackson Pollock Biography, Art, and Analysis of Works. The Art Story. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Dec. 2016.Christiansen, Rupert. The Victorian Visitors Culture Shock in Nineteenth-Century Britain. New York Times Books, 2000. Web. 17 Dec. 2016.Cold Fusion A Case Study for Scientific Behavior. N.p. The University of calcium Museum of Paleontology, Berkeley, and the Regents of the University of California, 2012. PDF.Kaiser, David. Drawing Theories Apart The Dispersion of Feynman Diagrams in Postwar Physics. N.p. U of Chicago, 2005. Google Books. Web. 16 Dec. 2016.Laborie, Sverine. The heap of the M edusa. The Raft of the Medusa Louvre Museum Paris. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Dec. 2016.Peregrine, Anthony. Raft of the Medusa A Grisly Tale of Incompetence and Cannibalism. The Telegraph. Telegraph Media Group, 12 July 2016. Web. 17 Dec. 2016.