Wednesday, October 30, 2019
Business Ethics - Case Study Example Pollution problems in Ohio valley are rooted in the year 1950 with the emerging of the Union Carbide which led to the building of several industries in the mountainous regions around the Ohio valley. Pollution problems started in 1951 (Hartley 1993. p. 31). Soot bad odour and ash were being emitted to the atmosphere causing massive of pollution. The neighboring population around the industrial area experienced the most suffering since most settlement were built on the valley. People were infected with respiratory disease among other dangerous illnesses. The Union carbine frustrated the people plead for the pollution content to be reduced. The National Air Pollution Control Administration tried to intervene in the situation by requesting the area to be inspected but the result of this was an ignorant response from the government. This portrays the level of corruption and unethical business environment in Ohio. Companies only focused on the profits and their business outcomes while neg lected the human environment in which the business directly affects. Business ethics advocate for healthy business environments which involves the relationship between the human and business environment. A healthy business environment is supposed to consider the economic, social and political environment. These are the entities that determine the prosperity of a business be it in the private or public sector. A good business is determined by the level of positive co-relation between these entity factors. Union carbine displays negative business ethics since it does not consider the help of the people living in the surrounding environment. In 1971, environmental reforms were structured which included the implementation of a number of pollution management measures. Union Carbide shut down one boiler and some workers lost their jobs as a result. This was considered as a form of retaliation to due to the new environmental reforms. This is unethical as it shows lack of consideration by t he company. Lockheed Corporation: Overseas Bribery Gone Rampant Corruption is one of the major attributes of unethical business. Corruption takes course in form of bribery of illegal tender allocation. Robert F. Hartley gives an overview of corruption cases and how they affect business ethics. Lockheed Corporation had tried to venture into several businesses but none of them turned out to be successful (Hartley 1993. p. 83). The company invested heavily in a number of businesses which all failed in the process before making any slight positive outcomes. Due to this, the company decided to switch to unethical form of business operation. Lockheed Corporation decided to extend their sales overseas in order to obtain more profits. This forced the company to make payoff in order to obtain contracts. Therefore it engaged in commodity trading with countries like Netherlands, Japan, Saudi Arabia, Italy, Iran and Spain. These resulted in the resignation of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s chairman. The reason to this was that the company went bankrupt under his leadership. Unethical business practices show a sense of unprofessionalism. The company board forced the manager to resign because he displayed unprofessional leadership skills at the time the company needed to progress and settle of its previous deficits. This also led to the creation of foreign corruption act in 1977. Robert F. Hartley
Monday, October 28, 2019
Alzheimer s Disease Paper Essay AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s is a disease that causes memory loss and cognitive decline. It is a neurological disorder and a neurodegenerative type of dementia due to the disease getting progressively worse. From a study done in the Unites States in 2010, researchers came to an estimated 4.7 million people, who were 65 years or older, had AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s disease. The a 2013 statistical report, by the AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s Association, just over 1/10th of people 65 years or older have AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s. When you are 85 years or older, the proportion jumps to about 1/3rd of people in the United States. The disease is caused by brain cell death. At first a few brain cells die, but over time it gets progressively worse and many brain cells die. Scientists believe that for most people, Alzheimers disease results from a combination of genetic, lifestyle and environmental factors that affect the brain over time. It is said that less than 5 percent of the time, the disease is caused by specific genetic change in a person. We know that AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s kill brain cells, but as more of the brain cells die, the disease will lead to significant shrinkage of the brain. When scientists examine an AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s brain, inside they find two types of abnormalities. These are considered the hallmarks of the disease. They are called Plaques and Tangles. Plaques are found between dying cells in the brain. They are a buildup of protein called beta-amyloid. Tangles are found within the brain neurons. They are a breakdown of a different protein called tau. These proteins however cannot be seen or tested in a living brain and can only be tested when the brain is dead. Genetics are the only way you can get early-onset AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s. Early-onset AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s is typically seen between the ages of 30 and 60 and this is due to one of three genes that are inherited and not something caused by your environment. Early-onset is very uncommon and that is why it only accounts for 5% of AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s cases. One ways to avoid getting AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s, unless you inherit the gene, is to Eating healthier. This is because some factors that can increase the chances of getting AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s are getting diabetes, high cholesterol, and high blood sugar. These factors not only increase your risk of getting AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s but they also increase your risk of getting a stroke which can cause other types of dementia. They suggest using your brain as much as possible and not let your brain do nothing when you get older. Avoid getting any brain injuries, the best that you can. There areÃ three different stages of AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s. The first stage is Preclinical which is before you are aware that you have the disease. The second stage is Mild cognitive impairment which is when you realize that you are having trouble remembering things. The last stage is Dementia which is where you are now have trouble remembering many things and will get worse and worse over time. Unfortunately there are no cures yet but there are treatments that can help with the process. Things such as medicine can help with your memory. Other things such as homes that will help you with coping with the disease. Overall there is not much that you can do to help with the disease. Work Cited: http://www.webmd.com/alzheimers/guide/alzheimers-disease-treatment-care http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/159442.php
Saturday, October 26, 2019
A hippie on a city bus notices a young nun sitting across from him and at once finds himself very attracted to her. He moves to sit with her and after telling her that she is the most beautiful woman he has ever seen, he asks her to dinner. The nun declines, and the hippie proceed to invite the nun for "perhaps a roll in the hay". The nun, of course, declines the offer and gets off at the next stop. The hippie, offended and very disappointed, strikes up a conversation with the bus driver. The driver leans over and says to the hippie, "You really want that nun, huh?" After the hippie nods emphatically and demonstrates his point with several lewd gestures, the driver grins and thinks for a moment. "Well," he says, "Every Thursday at 6 pm she takes this bus to the local cemetery, where she prays for about an hour. You two could be alone there..." The hippie grows excited as he thinks of a plan. Thursday comes and the hippie waits by the entrance to the cemetery. Sure enough, at six PM he sees the nun enter and he quietly follows her. She stops and kneels by a headstone and clasps her hands in prayer. The eager hippie opens his knapsack, and puts on his costume-a long flowing white robe and a bearded facemask. He tosses a handful of glitter at the nun and catching her attention, he steps slowly towards her. "My child" he says in a soft voice, "It is I, your Lord. You have been such a faithful servant to me, I have come to reward you with a satisfying sexual experience." The nun gasps, "Oh... Well, that is fine, but could you take me from behind? At least that way I could still consider myself a virgin.
Thursday, October 24, 2019
I. Statement of Scope and Objectives A. Introduction Technological innovation cause changes in the way people live. They have made lives of people easier, more comfortable and convenient and even hoteliers and services oriented companies find ways how to satisfy their customers, But how these hoteliers manage their transaction with fast and more convenient way. The Columban College Hotel & Resort is founded Dr. Susan P. Alegoria, the Dean of the College of Business Administration, with the recommending approval of the school treasurer Fr. Amado S. Censon and Rev. Fr. Daniel O.Presto the school President to the Board of Trustees Ã¢â¬â Most Reverent Bishop Florentino G. Lavarias, DD, as Chairman of the Board. Hotel now are having a hard time keeping their files in place. The procedure implemented is slow in billing. Manual handling of information may lead to inaccuracy of information because humans are prone to errors. In their reservation transaction there is a problem in shifting of schedules of the staff because the records is place only in the logbook and sometimes the staff is not aware that there is a reservation in a specific room because of it is difficult for them to find the room immediately.The proposed computerization system can reduced if not totally eliminates the errors that will be encountering. This system provides efficient and precise output because of the transaction for computation of bills. Accessing and updating records in reservation can be done with relative. It would then be easier for this company to go about their work with less effort and high efficiency. For Columban College Hotel & Resort, a manual-based transaction is still applied that serves as their primary system & when it comes to their data management which is record keeping and report generating.Such processes are done using logbooks, worksheets, price lists, calculators and a lot of human intervention. By doing so, the company has been encountering human errors such as i naccurate calculation, when turns out to be an inconvenience for them as it requires greater effort and time. To complement the need for capability to control, it is essential to develop an information system that will serve as the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s backbone. Background of the Study Columban College Hotel & Resort was built on the premise of putting aLaboratory facility for BSHRM Ã¢â¬â Bachelor of Science in Hotel and Restaurant Management and BST Ã¢â¬â Bachelor of Science in Tourism students. After two years of deliberate construction, a five storey, 15 rooms building complete with three star class facilities finally open its doors on April 15, 2004. A team of experts manage and operate the Hotel Laboratory for the students to experience a first class hospitality education, making them equipped and at par with their counterparts.All Laboratory classes/subjects are done in the hotel; Front Office, Housekeeping, Kitchen Operations, Bar Tending/Cocktail Mixing, Baking with Cake D ecoration, International Cuisine, Events and Catering Management, and Culinary Arts. These specialized subjects are taught by experts from the industry and with NC II certification by TESDA. The Columban College Hotel & Resort, is the first educational hotel in Zambales and Bataan Provinces, it is located at Barrio Barretto, Olongapo City. It is ten minutes away from Subic Bay Freeport Zone, thus making it ideal for conferences, retreats and other gatherings.Nestled in the nature rich area of the Barrio Barretto with a spectacular view of Subic Bay and the mountains. This hotel and resort features very affordable room rates; one can choose from standard to deluxe rooms ranging from Php. 1,200. 00 to Php. 3,600. 00. It has function room that can accommodate 200 guests, and dining areas. The swimming pool Ã¢â¬â a mini Ã¢â¬âOlympic size pool with kiddy pool with lush tropical gardens and a roof deck overlooking the Barretto campus and Subic Bay will definitely make your stay wort hwhile. As educational hotel and resort, our tradition of impeccable service will make your stay memorable.The Columban College Hotel & Resort continues to set itself apart with its excellence in Hospitality Service and education as evidence by the result of regional culinary skills competition. The existing system in the organization contains many manual operations, including a manual registration and reservation performed by the guest which creates a problem on the receptionists recording the data that has been gathered, manual transactions of payment also created problem in paying the bills in the hotel. The Columban College Hotel & Resort is having a hard time keeping their files in place. The procedure implemented is slow in billing.Manual handling of information may lead to inaccuracy of information because humans are prone to errors. In their reservation transaction there is a problem in shifting of schedules of the staff because the records is place only in logbook and somet imes the staff is not aware that there is a reservation in a specific room because of it is difficult for them to find the room immediately. Another problem also is the marketing of the hotel because of its location and finding the prospect guests. The proposed computerization system can reduced if not totally eliminates the errors that will be encountering.This system provides efficient and precise output because of the transaction for computation of bills. Accessing and updating records in reservation can be done with relative. Reports are being generated depending on the list required by the management. It would then be easier for the company to go about their work with less effort and with high efficiency. B. Statement of the Problem MAJOR PROBLEM: Based on observation and interview done by the proponents, this study identified that the major problems experienced by the management lies on the manual process of all their operation.SPECIFIC PROBLEMS: 1. Slow Process Ã¢â¬â It ta kes time to prepare a billing report and billing statement of the clients and unable to determine quickly the availability of the rooms in order to assign new clients to their respective rooms because they are still using manual process. 2. Data Security Ã¢â¬â Their records will get lost or damaged because their data is not secured and sometimes the receptionists overlooks the records of the reservations and assigns different clients on the same room and same date which makes the manual system unreliable. 3.Intensive labor Ã¢â¬â They have difficulties on searching clientsÃ¢â¬â¢ records and scanning the log books for the availability of the rooms it also needs effort in order to compute the billing statement. C. Objectives of the Study GENERAL OBJECTIVE: The general objective is to design and develop a Hotel Management System for Columban College Hotel & Resort, Barrio Barretto, Olongapo City. SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES: 1. To be able to develop a system that will speed up the proce ss of operation. The receptionists will have an ease using this system because our proposed system is capable on computing the payments that clients have made. . To be able to secure a program by creating a different user level of security The proposed system will have a capability to create a back-up of the recent database and the records are protected because the only person who can access their records is the receptionists. 3. To be able to develop a system that will ease the job of different user. With one glance the roomÃ¢â¬â¢s status will be shown whether it is available, occupied and reserved. The receptionists would no longer look throughout all the roomsÃ¢â¬â¢ information on the log book one by one. D. Scope and Limitations ScopeThis study will cover the management of the rooms, the system will show the information of the room if it is occupied or available. The system will provide the computerization of the costumersÃ¢â¬â¢ total. The system will record the clientsÃ¢â ¬â¢ information and the transaction they settled. Limitations The system limits the direct usage of the system by the clients, only the receptionists can operate the system. Editing guest information & transactions can only be made by the receptionists. E. Locale of the Study Figure 1. 0 The Columban College Hotel & Resort is located at Rizal Ext. Barrio Barretto, Olongapo City, near the Columban College, Barretto Campus. F. Significance of the Study This study aims to provide a Hotel Management System for Columban College Hotel & Resort. With regards to the billing of the guest, the system will be responsible in computing their payment and checking the availability of all rooms. Receptionists: They will consume less time and effort interacting with their clients. Having this system, they can easily access or check the status of the rooms depending on its types. And they can easily give the bill of the clients because it was already computed by the system.Clients: Their clients wi ll not have to wait for a long period of time for the room that will be assigned to them and their bill. Company: The hotel will have a better transaction process and ease in their guest management. II. Review of Related Literature and Studies A. Related Literature This chapter is a discussion of the background, aims and objectives of the present study. This chapter deals with the review of related literature. The purpose of the study of research works done in the same field is to understand what type of study has been done and what exactly has been explored before the present research work started.The system provide the reception an easy way for searching on rooms, listing off rooms, inserting the client information, making reservation for rooms and doing payment process. This will be created by four students of Columban College. They are Jon Roel Lasala(BSCS), Kristian Castillo(BSCS), Steven Ocampo(BSIT) and Rosendo Luy(BSIT). B. RELATED STUDIES Foreign Webraydian (2007) asserted that to run a hotel successfully it is important that the hotel management should be good before making any change in the trends one should take a look to every aspects as any changes in the trend also have a wide impact on the diverse industries.Rutherford (2009) asserted that the hotel business should be done in terms of the guest interest as well because of the growing concern over environment friendly service. OÃ¢â¬â¢Fallon (2010) asserted that the hotel business is one of the most competitive businesses in the world or the better words is Ã¢â¬Å"most cut throatÃ¢â¬ . Michael said that hotel reservations software allows hotels and resorts to manage reservation software allows hotels and resorts to manage reservations, set rates, offer discounts and monitor room allocations. Most otel reservation systems include hotel management software, hotel reservation and billing software, hotel reception software and hotel accounting software modules. Global Marketing asserted that comm unicating with all of these channels in order to keep them current on your inventory and rates, requires in some cases, daily manual intervention with multiple faxes and phone calls. More importantly, verifying the accuracy of each channelÃ¢â¬â¢s current allotment and rate by property is critical but rarely automated. Most times hotel operators do not know where or how their rooms are being sold or at what rate until the booking confirmation arrives.Waller said that is hotel hotel reservation software is really a necessary need. Pencil and paper booking sheets for example tend to get the job done, yes? That may be so, but also considers that with hotel reservation software, such booking sheets can be printed out, and many software packages can be configured to most any language. Martindale, asserted that another great feature about using hotel reservation is you can select from any hotel in the area that you want to stay at, even of your budget wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t normally allow you t o afford it.With the online system you can browse the different hotels available in the area, and see if they have only a discounted price or if they will allow you to create your own price. This many sound strange, but especially during off peak times many hotel want people to spend something to stay in their room to help increase their annual revenue. Charya, asserted that Hotel Management system helps the hotel administrators to accommodate special request, booking checkouts, etc. They keep sending reminders highlight the important dates for the benefits of the customers.It also gives the hotel administration leverage in terms of making immediate adjustments as and when something unexpected turn ups. Schneider said that room management is simple and cost effective because a guest room management system can ensure maximum user-friendly and cost effectiveness. Assuresoftware. com testified that the management software can help your people get more out of every minute, every hour, a nd every workday. It is designed to boost productivity by simplifying scheduling rooms and resources. LocalValenzuela (2003) asserted that computer-based hotel reservation and billing system can reduce errors that will be encountered. This system provides efficient and precise output because of the transaction for computation of bills. Reports are being generated depending on the list required by the management since computerization of all companies are being encourage; there is need for hotels to adapt computerized operation too. Razal (2004) testified that the reservation and information are essential to attract clients and customers, so when they see that the establishment that can be added to their success.Wong (2004) concluded that reservation system will lessen the work of the employees and would really help them a lot in managing the hotel and it would be much easy to organize all transactions of the hotel. Capistrano (2005) asserted that reservation system enhance the existi ng business operation and give further improvement for the business process. Fuerte (2005) concluded that an application of IT technology in any business firms hold the key to competitiveness towards development and success in the business.Ramirez (2005) asserted that reservation system will benefit not only the company but customers as well, because it will increase the efficiency of the employees working operation. Daduya (2006) claimed that organized and fast retrieval of information computerization of their reservation and registration process is need, for them to have fast and accessible transaction. Mirador (2007) asserted that reservation system is deemed significant because it will be different from the traditional process of reservation.This will reinstate the manual process of reservation which probably creates difficulty for the people the who are responsible in reservation. C. Analysis on Related Literature and Studies As summary, Hotel Reservation System is an advance p rocess of managing hotel reservation; check in, check out of costumers. It is a user friendly and helps the hotel receptionist to accommodate special request, booking, checkouts. They keep sending reminders and highlight the important dates for the benefits of the costumers.Therefore, hotel that uses Computer based system needs to conduct day training for the users/receptionist to be literate in hotel management system and to avoid difficulties in making reservation of costumers. It lessens the time consume doing the hotel reservation. It is a replacement for manual reservation. A system more convenient and user friendly and compiling of files is more accurate and more sufficient than compiling it manually. It is more easy-driven to ensure faster and reliable data by processing of information in database. III. Methodologies A. Methods of Research StudyIn this chapter, the proponents described the method of research used and data gathering procedure, tools and data processing techniq ues. The Proponents used the different gathering materials like internet, books and previous study similar to the proposed study. After collecting and analyzing the data that we gather we found out some of the problems and establish our main objectives that served to be our guidelines for pursuing the system. Those gathered information from questionnaire, surveys and interviews can solved to the problem of the Columban College Hotel & Resort for their manual process. B.Data Gathering Techniques The proponents used the Descriptive Method; it is designed to investigate and to gather information about the present situation. This was the chosen method of the proponents because the method can help the proponents obtain the information they need. There are different ways to gather the information needed for the proponents to understand more about the current system of Columban College and how can the people adjust in the new system that is going to be implemented. The facts and informatio n that was gathered by the proponents was obtained by the use of Observation, Interview and Survey.Observation Ã¢â¬â this first stage to be done because before doing the interview and survey the proponents needs to observe what kind of environment the locale of the study have, what kind of people is involved and the educational attainment of each people. This technique is very helpful in gathering the needed data because conducting the observation opened some issues and problems that the study will encounter. Interview Ã¢â¬â by conducting the interview, all the questions and issues of the proponents was brought up and was answered.Interviews were done with the different people who are involves and in-charge of the Columban College Hotel & Resort. Survey Ã¢â¬â this was used by proponents to determine the percentages of the students who agree and disagree on the proposed system. Using this technique gives the proponents the opportunity to understand the situation of the stude nts in the existing system. The techniques/ways discussed above will not be obtained without the instruments used in data gathering. These instruments were performed carefully and accurately to have a very reliable result in the study.The instruments used to gather the information needed are the Library and the Internet. Library Ã¢â¬â the proponents used the Library to gather some important information that can help improve the study. It also played a very big part in the study itself; the Library contains a lot of reliable information regarding the study that helped the proponents. Internet Ã¢â¬â the internet played a vital role in gathering the information needed. The internet nowadays contains information that are not that reliable and accurate, the proponents carefully compared the results and comments of the other readers in the internet to have a result that is reliable.The proponents used survey form as one of the most important method in data gathering. A set of survey questions was given to at least 30 respondents including employee and guests of Columban College Hotel & Resort, who gives the proponents a specific knowledge and help us in identifying the common problems they are facing in a relation to the study. The proponents used Percentile Method to determine the quantities and percentage of the responses in the survey. 1. Sampling Design A project for: Columban College Hotel & Resort Rizal Ext. , Barrio Barretto, Olongapo CityDear respondents, This survey aims to collect data in accordance to the study Ã¢â¬Å"Columaban College Hotel & Resort Management SystemÃ¢â¬ . Kindly answer the question honestly and accurately. Please do not leave any statement unmarked. Your response will be highly appreciated. Thank you very much. God Bless! I. Personal Information Name (Optional):_____________________________________________ Age: 12- 16 17- 21 21- 30 30 & above Gender: Male Female II. Questionnaires 1. Is the reservation process on the hotel fast enough? 3D YesNo 2.Was your reservation handled courteously and correctly? 3D YesNo 3. Was the check-in process was timely and efficient? YesNo 4. Was your suite clean and properly maintained? YesNo 5. Were your arrival and departure experiences handled courteously and efficiently? YesNo 6. Do you think that the computerization of the reservation can affect the performance of the hotel? YesNo 7. Did the resort exceed your expectations? YesNo 8. Would you stay at the resort if you were to return to this area? YesNo Letter of Interview Columban College Hotel & Resort Rizal Ext. , Barrio Barretto Olongapo City Dear Sir/Madam:Greetings! We are graduating students of College of Computer Studies taking up Bachelor of Science in Information Technology and Computer Science. Currently, we are enrolled in our Thesis Writing Technology where we are required to design a system for a particular organization or industry. In relation to this, we planned to design Ã¢â¬Å"Columban College Hotel & Re sort Management SystemÃ¢â¬ and we are seeking for your assistance for us to conduct an interview and data gathering at your most convenient time. Rest assured that the information that we will get will be treated with much confidentiality.We are looking forward for the consideration that you can give to our request. You may reach us through the following number: 09072316910 or email us at [emailÃ protected] com Sincerely, _________________ Noted by: Jon Roel Lasala ________________________ _________________ Mr. Ronnie D. Luy Kristian Castillo Thesis Adviser _________________ Steven Nicco Carangalan _________________ Rosendo Luy 2. Respondents Figure 2. 0 The receptionist of Columban College Hotel & Resort Figure 3. 0 Readying for interview on Mr.Elmer Callo, Assistant Manager of the CCHR Receptionist The receptionist will be observed by the proponents to know what is the possible problems that are occurring in performing the manual operations in the hotel. Guests The proponents will conduct a survey of how the manual operations of hotel affect the satisfaction of the guests. Administrators The proponents will interview the administrators of the hotel to know what problems they are experiencing in the hotel. C. Statistical Treatment of Data 1. Percentile Method to determine the quantities and percentage of the responses in the survey.Survey forms will be given to the employees and some guests of the Columban College Hotel & Resort. N N Formula: P = f x 100 Where: % = Percentage f = Frequency N = Total Number of Respondents D. Collected Data and Information Result of Survey The results of the survey were discussed on this study and the following questions that were answered by the respondents: 1. Is the reservation process on the hotel fast enough? | | Frequency| Percentage| Yes| 7| 23%| No| 23| 77%| Total| 30| 100%| Table 1. 0 Figure 2. 0 2. Was your reservation handled courteously and correctly? | | Frequency| Percentage|Yes| 17| 56%| No| 13| 44%| Total| 30| 100%| Table 1. 1 Figure 2. 1 3. Was the check-in process was timely and efficient? | | Frequency| Percentage| Yes| 11| 36%| No| 19| 64%| Total| 30| 100%| Figure 2. 2 4. Was your suite clean and properly maintained? | | Frequency| Percentage| Yes| 22| 73%| No| 8| 27%| Total| 30| 100%| Table 1. 3 Table 2. 3 5. Were your arrival and departure experiences handled courteously and efficiently? | | Frequency| Percentage| Yes| 18| 60%| No| 12| 40%| Total| 30| 100%| Table 1. 4 Figure 2. 4 6. Do you think that the computerization of the reservation can affect the performance of the hotel? | Frequency| Percentage| Yes| 28| 93%| No| 2| 7%| Total| 30| 100%| Table 1. 5 Figure 2. 5 7. Did the resort exceed your expectations? | | Frequency| Percentage| Yes| 15| 50%| No| 15| 50%| Total| 30| 100%| Table 1. 6 Figure 2. 6 8. Would you stay at the resort if you were to return to this area? | | Frequency| Percentage| Yes| 21| 70%| No| 9| 30%| Total| 30| 100%| Table 1. 7 IV. Modelling and Technical Ba ckground A. Software Model The proponents adopt the System Development Life Cycle because this will act as the proponentÃ¢â¬â¢s guide in creating the proposed system. Figure 3. 0SDLC is a process used by IT analysts in order to develop or redesign high quality software system which meets both the customer and the real world requirement taking into consideration all associated aspects of pros and cons of software testing, analysis and post process maintenance. B. Theoretical Framework This chapter will discuss the different process and methods of creating the needed system of the organization through the guidelines that the proponents created in their researches and findings. This chapter also involves the different phases that will act as guide that will be an essential to the creation of the proposed system.Additional information Additional information PLANNING PLANNING DISCOVEERY DISCOVEERY INFORMATION GATHERING INFORMATION GATHERING REPORTING REPORTING Figure 4. 0 Theoretical F ramework C. Conceptual Framework Proposed System Proposed System Check for room availability Check for room availability Show and compute for the bills Show and compute for the bills Create a back-up for database Create a back-up for database Give the needed information Give the needed information Give the room desired by the client Give the room desired by the client Give the payment Give the payment Client Client Receptionist ReceptionistFigure 5. 0 Conceptual Framework This figure shows the concept of the proposed system, It will tackles how the process of interaction between the receptionist and the guests. 1. Paradigm/IPO Diagram Figure 6. 0 Paradigm The IPO model has many interdisciplinary applications, and is used to convey systems fundamentals inÃ ITÃ overviewÃ educationÃ and as a brainstorming, preliminary investigation tool inÃ systems development processesÃ such as theÃ SDLC. V. Systems Analysis and Design A. Systems Analysis 1. Existing System Columban Coll ege Hotel & Resort is currently performing all their process in manual operation. . User Requirements/ Requirements Specifications User Requirements | Developer Requirement| Automated Billing Statement| Create a system that will automatically generate billing statement| Computer-based viewing Room Status| Include the room status in the features of the program| Computer Reservation| Create a Database Management System| Computer-based Check in/out| Create a system that will manage the Check in/out of the clients| Computerized Adding/Viewing of ClientsÃ¢â¬â¢ information| Create a Database Management System| Table 2. 0 User Requirements 3. Feasibility Study 3. Technical Feasibility Columban College Hotel & Resort is in need of a computer-based system to be able to operate faster and more efficiently. The system project primarily intends to avoid inconsistencies during operation. Also, implying the use of computerized processes avoids inaccurate report of billing amounts and miscalcula tion of transactions. Microsoft Office 2010 offers flexible and powerful new ways to deliver your best workÃ¢â¬âat the office, at home, or at school. Create standout reports and presentations with tools that help you capture your ideas more creatively.Stay connected to your projects, even when youÃ¢â¬â¢re away from your computer, with access to Office files via Web browser or Windows phone. 1Ã Work efficiently with others by sharing, editing, and reviewing files at the same timeÃ¢â¬âeven across geographies and time zones. Adobe PhotoshopÃ is aÃ graphics editing programÃ developed and published byÃ Adobe Systems. Photoshop files have default file extension asÃ . PSD, which stands for Ã¢â¬Å"Photoshop Document. Ã¢â¬ A PSD file stores an image with support for most imaging options available in Photoshop.These include layers withÃ masks,Ã color spaces,Ã ICC profiles, CMYK Mode (used for commercial printing), transparency, text,Ã alpha channelsÃ andÃ sp ot colors,Ã clipping paths, andÃ duotoneÃ settings. This is in contrast to many other file formats (e. g. .JPG or . GIF) that restrict content to provide streamlined, predictable functionality. A PSD file has a maximum height and width of 30,000 pixels, and a length limit of 3 Gigabytes. Visual BasicÃ is aÃ third-generationÃ event-driven programming languageÃ andÃ integrated development environmentÃ (IDE) fromÃ MicrosoftÃ for itsÃ COM programming model first released in 1991.Visual Basic is designed to be relatively easy to learn and use. Visual Basic was derived from BASICÃ and enables theÃ rapid application development (RAD)Ã ofÃ graphical user interface (GUI)Ã applications, access toÃ databasesÃ usingÃ Data Access Objects,Ã Remote Data Objects, orÃ ActiveX Data Objects, and creation ofÃ ActiveXÃ controls and objects. VBAÃ is effectively the same language as Visual Basic but VBA-code is tied to Microsoft Office and can only run wit hin that environment. TheÃ scripting languageVBScriptÃ is a subset of Visual Basic. . 2 Economical Feasibility The Economic Feasibility will be the basis if the said proposal is economically feasible; Every company knows that cost is one of the major problems to be considered in making a proposed system, if it affordable or not. However, the only thing that the shop need is hosting the proposed system and it is less expensive. The proposed system just need to acquire an internet connection and have knowledge on computer and it will be possible for them to get their needs and information by just browsing.The economic feasibility will illustrate the expenses needed to be able to implement the proposed system successfully below. Since the Columban College Hotel & Resort has already has a one (1) complete set of personal computer, there is no need to buy a new one. Software Specification Software Components| Description| | Windows 7| | Microsoft Office 2010| | Visual Basic 6. 0| Har dware Specification Hardware Components| Description| | Intel DUAL CORE E5300 2. 6Processor| | INTEL DG41RQ DDR800/ 6CHN/ GLAN/ QUAD/| | 2 GB DDR2 PC800| Hard disk SEAGATE 250GB 7200 SATA| | Monitor AOC9315l 18. 5Ã¢â¬ Black| | AVR 500 watts| | A4Tech Slim PS2 KBS-720 Black| | A4tech Optical Mouse OP6200 USB| 3. 3 Operational Feasibility Operational feasibility is this will focus whether the system will be productive if it is being developed and implemented. Whether there will be affect from user or there will be possible application benefits. Operational feasibility, this is how the system will solve the following problem or how it satisfies the requirements analysis phase of the development.ITEM| UNIT| PRICE| QTY. | FREQ. (1 Acad. Yr. )| TOTAL| Bond Paper| Ream| Php. 200. 00| 1| 20pcs. | Php. 4,000. 00| Ink| Cartridge| Php. 350. 00| 1| 1| Php. 350. 00| Log Book| | Php. 35. 00| 1| 12pcs. | Php. 420. 00| Total| | | | | Php. 4,770. 00| Table 4. 0 Operational Feasibility Electricity Consumption and Cost Rate/kW = Php. 5. 90 (based on ZAMECO II) Amount = (unitÃ¢â¬â¢s watt/1,000kW) *rate *hours usage ITEM| UNIT WATTS(1 Acad. Yr. )| HOURS USAGE| COST| Personal Computer| 225W| 24hrs. (min)| Php. 4,032. 00| Table 4. 1 Operational Feasibility 3. 4 Time FeasibilityTime feasibility will say the schedule if the project being done. And how many months it is being cover. This Gantt chart show how does data gathering being done and even the design phase and maintenance are show in the Gantt chart. Bars show the time being consumed in one task to other task until we fulfil all the requirements needed by the clients. Figure 7. 0 Gantt Chart 3. 5 Feasibility Analysis Executive Summary After the proponents gather all the essential information needed, the proponents is convinced that the proposed system will be feasible in implementing.The proposed system requires both hardware and software components to keep the system running. For the receptionists, the Visual Basic 6. 0 i s needed to run the system. It is important to create a back-up of database to keep the information and transactions safely. Since the needed software and hardware were available in the hotel, the proponents will only now focus in implementing the system to know whether the proposed system will truly help the Columban College Hotel & Resort. 4. Risk Analysis Risk| Source| Action| Risk level|Data corruption through loss or alteration of data without the applicationÃ¢â¬â¢s knowledge and consent| Receptionist error (accidental file deletion)| Recover file| High| | Software bugs (unexpected conditions and responded to incorrectly| Update anti-virus, delete any virus founds| Medium| Data corruption through willful action| Externally, from viruses and worms| Create back-up data| Medium| Acts of God| Earthquake, floods, etc. | Create back-up data| Low| Table 5. 0 Risk Analysis B. System Design 1. Proposed System This research describes an adaption of a hotel reservation system in Columba n College Hotel & Resort.Computer technology has made our lives much easier and convenient. Years ago, people had to manually input important information of their guest, now you just use the computer to find this information. In just one click, instantly find the guest name, rooms & rates, address, email address, phone numbers and so on. By investigating their existing reservation, the guest input the information manually in reservation form. It is hassle for the guest to do a reservation as well as to the receptionist. It is time a waste of time, effort and the things that is needed for the reservation.Proponents will implement the proposed system in Columban College Hotel and Resort. All you need is computer and a user, by just opening the application. It is a very reliable, efficient and convenient. It is much easier to for the receptionist to look at the database and see if the guests are already paid or if the room is already occupied or unoccupied and so on and so forth. 2. Ob ject-Oriented Analysis and Design 2. 1 UML Class Diagram Figure 8. 0 Class Diagram 2. 2 Use Case Diagram System System Check Room Information Check Room Information Input Customer InformationInput Customer Information Update System Update System Edit information Edit information Add Subcharges Add Subcharges Total Payment Total Payment Figure 9. 0 Use Case Diagram 2. 3 Use Case Description Use Case| Input reserved information| Actor| Receptionist| Description| Input data information about room reserved| Trigger| When a customer wants to reserve for room| Pre-conditions| Customers wants to reserve room| Post-conditions| System will be updated| Normal Flow| All information about reservation must be encoded| Priority| High| Frequency of Use| In all guest to booked in the hotel|Table 6. 4 Use Case| Updates System| Actor| Receptionist| Description| Updating of system in every time there is new booking schedule| Trigger| New inputs/booking schedule is given| Pre-conditions| Guest requeste d for room reservation| Post-conditions| Input/information given is updates to the system| Priority| High| Frequency of Use| In all guest to booked in the hotel| Table 6. 5 Use Case| Edit information| Actor| Receptionist| Description| Editing of customer and room information| Trigger| When information needs to be updated| Post-conditions| System will update changes|Normal Flow| Editing is always done when changes are needed to be done in the customer information| Includes| Data Verification| Table 6. 6 Use Case| Total payment| Actor| Receptionist| Description| Adding all the expenses in the information| Post-conditions| Payment will be done according to the total amount| Normal Flow| | Includes| | Priority| | Frequency of Use| | Business Rules| | Table 6. 8 2. 4 System Sequence Diagram 3. Network Diagram/System Architecture Proposed System Proposed System Receptionist Receptionist Database Management System Database Management SystemFigure 11. 0 Network Diagram Network DiagramÃ is theÃ conceptual modelÃ that defines theÃ structure and behaviour of aÃ system. 4. Database Structure 4. 1 Entity Relationship Diagram 4. 2 Data Dictionary 4. 3 Relational Databases 5. System Interfaces 5. 1 System Inputs Guest Reservation Form This is where the receptionist will input the essential information of the guest, it will also show how much the guest will pay about the chosen room. This is where the additional necessity will be ordered by the guest and the receptionist will process the transaction 5. 2 System Outputs . 3 Process Specifications 5. 4 Integrity Controls All bits of information or data that are gathered in the guest will be stored in the system and its database. Only the receptionist can modify the system in the server through the approval of who might be the one should be approving it. That person who will be approving it will depend on the agreement of the company or policy. 5. 5 Security Controls The proposed system has the capability to back-up th e database of all it saved information. The system will have passwords where only receptionist can access it.Any antivirus programs with high integrity will be used to protect the system. 6. Automation Boundary The proposed system will be about reservation of room accommodation and other services. The system will not be providing automated billing. 7. Initial Gap Analysis The existing system is all about manual operation by filling up form of reservation, unlike the proposed system all you need to do is encode the information. Other advantage of the proposed system its more efficient if compiling reservation form. It is also more accurate in reviewing data information about the previous accommodations.Chapter VI A. Implementation Activities In order to successfully implement the proposed system for Columban College Hotel & Resort, the proponents need to orient the Receptionist, Manager and Owner on how the process of the proposed system works and on how the system should be handled, after orientation and installation the system will be tested and will be evaluated for further revisions or enhancement that are still needed to include on the proposed system. B. Testing 1. Unit Testing The system administrator and other users will be involved in testing the program.The users are allowed to explore the system then let them take notes if there are any flaws in it or if there are anything that needs to improve. Then the proponents will debug the system then re-run the testing for further adjustment and debugging until the system will be fully operational. ALPHA TESTING Alpha testing is a form of preliminary software field test carried out by a team of users in order to find bugs that were not found previously through other tests. The main purpose of alpha testing is to refine the software product by finding and fixing the bugs that were not discovered through previous tests.This indicate the stages of the process how the system response to its given task. The testin g is conducted in order to know how the systems deliver the required response regarding with its performance. Based from the test that has been establish in using alpha testing, the proponents comes up from the first part of testing the system, there were things that must be change. One of the changes that need to be change is the abolishing of the manual procedure of the hotel, 2. Integration Testing 3. Usability TestingAfter all operation testing are done, the Hotel Management System receptionist will seek for questions regarding the improvements of the system. After gathering some information, adjustment or improvements will be done in the system depending on how big are the problems need to be change in the system. 4. User Acceptance Test As all the adjustment or improvements are done, the system will be tested again by the Users and will be re-evaluated if the system already fulfilled the UserÃ¢â¬â¢s satisfaction. C. Change Request and Error Reports D. Deployment 1. Deploymen t Approaches 2. UserÃ¢â¬â¢s TrainingIn order for the system to fully-implement in the oraganization, the users must undergo training in order to gain enough knowledge in computer. The training will be about familiarizing in the operating system which is the Windows7 so that the user wil use will know where to go in accessing the system, then the Microsoft Visual Basic. net in order for them to easily understand the environment of the syetm because the system is made through the said software. Then, also most importantly is the users must be trained on how to use the system. The training will be conducted in their free time.In terms of the untoward incident that will happen in the system during the operation, the users are obligued to go out series of trainings for the debugging of the system as well as the systemÃ¢â¬â¢s maintenace. 3. System Maintenance 1. Problem Report During the previous process, the problems aroused in the system are the following: 2. Manual Changing and Upd ating of records The HotelÃ¢â¬â¢s office consists of many files of the clients and inventories. Since, the office piled up with many files there are many records that needed to be recorded in a new form and add to the database.And also the files are not be placed consequently because the files are only been placed to the filling cabinet in the office. 3. Employees are not Computer Confident The Front Desk Employees does not have sufficient knowledge about computer. Regarding with this, the proponents suggested to have leave and conduct training or seminar. 1. Policies and Procedures Policies Policies may vary depending on the desire of Columban College Hotel & Resort Management, but the proponents suggest the following policies: 1. Only the Admin are in charge of adding, editing and deleting the System Users 2.The system data base should be backed-up every week in case of data crash or other unexpected circumstances 3. The Computer should be place in a nice atmosphere to prevent o verheating. 4. No other employee other than the Receptionist, Manager and owner can directly use the system. 5. In the reservation transaction, down payment is needed in order to confirm the reservation, the receptionist will inform the client that the registration will be cancelled if the guest didnÃ¢â¬â¢t arrive 2 hours after the expected time of arrival and the down payment will serve as the registration fee. Chapter VIIConclusion and Recommendation A. Conclusion The Hotel Management System have already been completed. It really made a significant difference as compared with the present existing system of the hotel since it was done through interfaces of computers. The usage of the system truly provides the advancement of technology, towards a fast access of information. The proponents therefore conclude that it is more reliable to make use of the proposed system as it is able to reduce data redundancies and inconsistencies, in which the administrator and receptionist experienc ed while using the existing system.The proposed system is guaranteed to be secured and will make the work of the receptionist faster and more convenient. B. Recommendation The proponents recommend the implementation of the system as it would speed up and make more efficient the processes involved in managing rooms. Full testing before implementation is suggested. The system will not cover how the payment will be done, whether they will use credit card or bank transactions.Stand-alone computer unit is used in the system but in the future purposes the respondents can use two or more computer unit for the manager and the management if needed. The user level must be considered always for the security of the files and every transaction. Because of technology the needed for improvement never stop, therefore the proponents recommend to the next future proponents to add more features to the system to become more useful and to satisfy the future needs of the business.
Wednesday, October 23, 2019
New Zealand is well-known as one of the best growers of grapes for world class wines. The topographic feature of the country, having a rich forest, hilly mountains and breath-taking coastlines, best suits the cultivation and growing of a variety of grape vines. The temperature of the land with good sunlight at day and cool sea breeze during the night nurtures the taste of grapes. This temperament makes the grapes ripe at slower pace enhancing the taste of wines to be made. This made New ZealandÃ¢â¬â¢s wine as one of the major agricultural products of the country.With this accessibility of wineries, alcoholic beverages in the country are of low cost and sold anywhere in the country. Even food cooked and served at home commonly uses wine for classic taste improvement. Many households experiments food dishes with the use of their grown wines to compliment their food. Like European dishes, New Zealand people use wines as spices for their foods.Use of wines in food or drinking alcohol b everages is common for New Zealand people. It is just a simple custom that they drink wines or any alcoholic beverages on their everyday meals. And the cold environmental climate especially the north part of the country would need such alcoholic drinks to warm up body preferably at night time.Because of those, being addicted or experimenting with the use of alcohol is not an issue for their society. Activity of people with alcohol is unnoticeable unless crimes are committed with its excessive usage.The Story of a Teenage BoyI had known a boy within the country about a year ago whose story of his life had been a misery because of the use of alcohol. His family problems rooted from alcohol addiction. He described alcoholism as a distinct vice that runs in their family.I could recall the day when he approached me and asked for help, I was then hanging out in one of the local bars where I spent a summer vacation. The boy was so sober and could not stand still. It just so happened that h is house was just a few blocks away from where I am staying. I offered him a cup of coffee to clear up his mind before we parted ways. He did not accept my offer but rather he asked favor to give him a ride home.On the next day, while I was doing a morning stroll around the neighborhood, it happens that I met him around the park. He was dressed with same screwed dirty clothes the night before. I came close to him and asked him to have breakfast with me. He agreed by then because he confessed that he had not yet eaten anything since that night.We had exchange of thoughts and became good friends for a while. I once asked him why he looked so disturbed and so much drunk the day I found him. He said he was distressed because of his family problems. I found out from him that his family descendants came from Maori race. His parents had been wed at early age. His father was already dead and his mother is suffering from an ailment. He had two brothers who are younger than him. They are supp osedly at secondary school but they are still in an intermediate level. They lack money to support a continuous education, even though they are studying in a state school. His father was a farm worker but all of his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s earnings were spent for alcohol. Hisfather died from liver cirrhosis. Even though his father was diagnosed of the disease, he still drinks all the time until the last day of his life.During the burial of his father, James (not his true name) learned that his grandfather, on his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s side, died of same ailment.James told me that his drinking problem started at a very early age, he was in his early teens when some of his school buddies were experimenting on wines and liquor. They are mixing drinks, measure how good it tasted and evaluate how strong the alcohol affects. Ã James told his friends activity to her mother. And he promised her that even though his peers were teasing him to try drinking alcohol; he will never taste a drop of it. That i s because of his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s habit. Then one day, he went to school bruised and teary eyed. His friend made an inquiry of his appearance.He had said that his father had come home late a night before. And he was so drunk. James was awakened of the shouting and crushing noise from their kitchen. He went right to where he heard the noise and saw his father was beating his mother. He then intervened to stop his father and protect his battered mother. His father beat him instead. His two brothers saw what happened but were afraid to help him. By the end of his story, his friends sympathized with him and gave him shots of liquors to forget and relieve the pains.Every time things went wrong in their house, his friends made him drunk. James said that it is good that he can not be reminded of what was happening in his family. He began to like drinking and even tried smoking. He had been hooked with alcohol for years.Ã His characters changed. He became hot-tempered and irritable.He wor ked to earn money to provide food to his family when his father died. But half of it was spent his vice of alcohol. Once in his younger life, heÃ tried to quit drinking but when problems arises in his family, he started to engaged in drinking habits again.James also got in trouble oftentimes because of drinking, either in school premise or in his community. He had also been dismissed to his work because of being late due to hang-over caused by alcohol.In his school, he even got a suspension of attending classes being drunk. He never went back to school after experiencing a week-long suspension.His two brothers hated him with his habit. He was confronted by his brothers as often as he went home late at night, so much drunk. Their friends and classmates made excuses to avoid their company because of JamesÃ¢â¬â¢ character. And their mother tried to talk with him before she was sick. He knew the responsibilities that his father had left to him. But he can not contain how he will lea rn to stop drinking and be strong enough to resist the taste of liquors. He planned to start a new life after his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s death to cure himself. But he can not afford to leave his family because of his concern for his sick mother.Analysis of James CaseDevelopmental Context:a) BronfenbrennerÃ¢â¬â¢s Model describes how the environment settings, where a child spends time, with the influence of family, community and the society, affect child development. The child is the center of this model. Person, objects and symbols around him have pertinent influence in his growth and development.Above ecological model shows that positive experiences, so called proximal processes, understand the value of protective and preventive processes to avoid physical and psychological damages.Microsystem mainly consists of a family. It is the immediate environment where the child begins to learn. Parents have the major role in the childÃ¢â¬â¢s development because a child, at his early age, is lim ited to the home environment and interact with the members of his family especially to his mother who attended to his needs.Classroom, religious setting and peer groups are also considered microsystem. It is a small group where a child started to learn how to socialize and develop his abilities.In JamesÃ¢â¬â¢ case, his father had been an alcoholic. His grandfather was also a drinker. His father, being a constant drinker, introduced him the liquors.Another is his classroom environment, he had met his friends to chat and hang around in school.Mesosystem is the interactive relationship or connection of settings within his family, peers, religion or school. The model introduced in this level of influence that the number and quality of the connection between settings affects child development.Since early environment is limited at home, family relationships play a dominant role in determining the future pattern of a childÃ¢â¬â¢s attitude toward and behavior in relationship with others .At this level, transitions, made by child between settings, are also distinctly recognized. The child, after recognizing his environment, started to show maturity brought out by his experiences.Due to JamesÃ¢â¬â¢ family problems, he was forced to try and experiment with liquors with encouragement from his peer group. He had tasted alcoholic drinks and started to appreciate it until he was hooked.Not all experiences may give positive impact on individual. It either leads to better path or placed in a harder situation.Exosystem consists of community, school system, mass media and medical institution. This system pertains to an entire group of people and organizations having interest with every individual.In this level, there is no direct participation of an individual but his experiences are greatly influenced by this sytem.James was discouraged to pursue his education because of the school institutionÃ¢â¬â¢s rules to suspend students who often gets in trouble and violates school Ã¢â¬â¢s regulations. Although the rule serves to discipline students, James decided not to return after his suspension.Macro system shows the effect of cultural values, social conditions, national customs and economic patterns to childÃ¢â¬â¢s development. These settings dictates how people will live and act based on accepted norms of the society.James wanted to live alone to find himself and cure his alcoholism but he can not do so because of his concern for his mother. It is a MaoriÃ¢â¬â¢s cultural value of being close with their family especially at the lowest point of their family memberÃ¢â¬â¢s life.a.) BaltesÃ¢â¬â¢ Life Span Concept. As defined by Baltes, this concept deals with the study of individual development (ontogenesis) from conception into old age. The development of child is not yet complete as he reaches adulthood. It actually extends across the entire life course.Age-graded are influences based on chronology of age with correlation to life course. Biologica l or environmental factors or its interaction caused this influence. Environmental factors is categorized as family life cycle, education,Ã and occupational. Events occurring in this influence are commonly undergone by population majority at same life duration. Each culture or sub-culture has their own set of this influence.JamesÃ¢â¬â¢ addiction to alcohol happens in his puberty stage. This is the time when most young individuals have anti-attitude towards life or seems to loss some of good qualities previously developed.While influences related with historical time and cultural experiences is known as normative history-graded. Examples are wars and epidemics that may affect the whole community.James grew in present decade where liberation and individualism is a norm. He does engage with liquor that do not needs behavioral acceptance by his society.Non-normative influences pertain to significant events experienced by particular individual.Ã These are not part of an overall pa ttern in connection to the normal life cycle of an individual. Examples are like road accidents and conversion of religion.JamesÃ¢â¬â¢ father died of liver cancer. His death caused by his overindulgence to liquor.Social and Emotional Theory:EricksonÃ¢â¬â¢s psychosocial theory covers development from birth to old age. This theory describes how social interactions affect childÃ¢â¬â¢s sense of self. It has eight stages that completing of each stage successfully will result to a healthy personality therefore an individual can have better interaction with others.Below are the eight stages1. TRUST VS. MISTRUST This is a stage where an infant begins to know who to trust and mistrust strangers.Ã Commonly, trust is established by infant with their parents.Ã¢â¬â James trusted her mother so much that he even told her the things her friends are experimenting.2. AUTONOMY VS SHAME & DOUBT is the stage when a child projects his separation, he points out that he is an individual with di fferent ideas from his parents. He started to assert his own desires.Ã¢â¬â When James, help his mother against his father by the time he was so drunk, he showed that he believe that his mother do not deserve such treatment from his father.3. INITIATIVE VS GUILT is a continuation of the previous stage in which a child plans to obtain his objectives. Shame is felt when embarrassing experience is exposed publicly. While guilt is felt either somebody or nobody knows that you did something wrong. On this stage a child learns to internalize the values he learned. Child based his manner of action on how his society accepted it.Ã¢â¬â James felt guilty on how he was been addicted to alcohol. Because of this, he wishes to cure himself.4. INDUSTRY VS. INFEROIRITY .This is the stage when a child, upon entering elementary school is being praised for their efforts for the first time or looking for comparison to some external standard.Ã¢â¬â James felt inferior because of his familyÃ¢â¬â ¢s ability to support them for their studies; he never wanted to return to school.5. IDENTITY VS. ROLE CONFUSION. This stage starts at adolescence period. An individual begins to explore with various possibilities for his career, peer groups and vested interests. Often, individual would try on different vices to gain experiences. Individuals find his own self and develop his own identity.Ã¢â¬â James, because of his family problems, tried drinking liquor to relieve his problems for some time. He has been confused of the things that are happening in their home.6. INTIMACY VS ISOLATIONÃ This stage happens during young adulthood. A young adult compares his interests, goals and desires with other individual. Emotional aspects of individual, with respect to other not-related to his family, are developed.Ã¢â¬â James still have not found any intimate relationship with other individual, he focused on how he will be able to solve his problems. He then isolates himself with the company of liquors.7. GENERATIVITY VS STAGNATION. Middle adulthood usually faces this stage. This time an individual wish to impart his values and learning from his hard works and experiences to his child or next family generation.Ã¢â¬â James felt stagnant of being hooked on alcohol. He had not learned much on how his father been drinking for his whole life years.Ã 8. INTEGRITY VS DESPAIR. This is the time when a person recalls his life and evaluates how he did things on his younger days. An individual becoming satisfied and happy with what had become of him nowÃ tries to accept the fate of his death.James felt desperate because he did not successfully hold on his principle of not becoming like his father.Attachment theory is describes the pattern of human enduring relationships from birth to death. There are three stages of emotional reactions in this theory. Initially, protest, which child shows his dependency to parents. Despair is the second stage when a child outflows his emot ions becoming sad and passive. Last stage is detachment, which a child expresses his independence.James shows his protest when his father beat him. He went to school teary-eyed for the painful experience he had in the hands of his father. He detached himself from his family by attaching himself with liquors.Cognitive Theory:Cognitive theory focuses on the individual's thoughts as the determinate of his or her emotions and behaviors and therefore personality.Ã In other words, thoughts always come before any feeling and before any action.SOAR is a computational theory of human cognition. It takes the form of a general cognitive architecture. (Rosen bloom, Laird & Newell, 1992). Soar is characterized by a set of specific theoretical commitments shaped by satisfying the functional requirements for the support of human-level intelligence.Three functional constraints of the SOAR structures are:a)Flexible and goal-driven behavior. This shows how a child will behave upon the laid situati on.James goal is to treat his alcohol addiction to prevent him becoming like his father.b) Continuous learning from experience. Experiences give a major impact of learning ideas. Sometimes experiences helps a child learn in a hard or easy ways.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã¢â¬â James learned that a taste of liquor drove him to addition.c) Real-time cognition. This shows a behavior within about a second of being in a situation.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã -James was attracted to experiment with liquors because of his curiosity and immediate need of relieving his tension and present problems.Evaluation:Developmental theory shows the important role of a family. The family, where a child is nurtured and its older members who become the role models to develop a childÃ¢â¬â¢s emotions and potentials, it is the most crucial environment in which a childÃ¢â¬â¢s experiences and actions are justified and rooted with how he is taken cared and be loved.The first significant fac t about development is that early foundations are critical. Attitudes, habits and pattern of behavior established during the early years determine to a large extent how successfully individuals will adjust to life as they grow older.Because early foundations are likely to be more persistent, it is important that they be of the kind that will lead to good personal and social adjustments as the individual grows older.Personality of an individual is described in the development theory. It indicates at what stage does a child needs careful attention and support. Personality is a dynamic concept of describing the growth and development of apersonÃ¢â¬â¢s whole psychological system. It is the sum total of ways in which an individual reacts to and interacts with others.An adultÃ¢â¬â¢s personality can be further understood through his developmental stages. It is made up of both hereditary and environmental factors, moderated by situational conditions.References:Bronfenbrenner, U. (1977) Toward an Experimental Ecology of Human Development. New York: Basic Books.Erikson, E. H. (1967) Identity and Life Cycle. New York: International University Press.Hurlock, Elizabeth. (1982). Developmental Psychology: A Life-Span Approach. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company.Leaky, R.E. (1991). The Making of Mankind. The Bumbridge Publishing Group.
Tuesday, October 22, 2019
another peer has stated about them. For me, teenage years were a very different scenario. I attended high school just like my peers with an enormous difference. Directly after the school day ended, I had adult responsibilities. My countless nights of lost sleep were not spent thinking about the prom or stressing about what someone else had said about me. The lack of sleep I suffered was due to caring for an infant. I also quickly learned the emotional hardships of becoming a teenage parent. Friends became scarce; I had nothing in common with peers outside the classroom. Most did not want to hear about my son reaching memorable milestones and most certainly did not want to hear about me spending the entire night in the emergency room with him. As if complex friendships werenÃ¢â¬â¢t enough, treatment from school personnel quite possibly had the most negative impact on my emotions. Judgme... Free Essays on Teenage Parenthood Free Essays on Teenage Parenthood Teenage Parenthood There are many struggles involved with becoming a teenage parent. I have endured varying degrees of support and negativity from peers, and school staff. Simultaneously, I became a statistic. I was a typical teenager, I had many dreams, and high hopes of a bright future. This was all put on hold following the birth of my son between my sophomore and junior years of high school. Determined to beat all odds, I unselfishly placed my own ambitions in a back seat position to care for the life of another. Fortunately, I had patient and understanding parents. They pledged to care for my baby during the day while I continued my high school education, but stressed he would be my sole responsibility when not at school. Most teenagers spend these years hanging out with friends, attending after school activities, and talking on the phone for countless hours. Typical teens also use a great deal of emotional energy stressing over seemingly insignificant details such as the perfect prom attire and negative words another peer has stated about them. For me, teenage years were a very different scenario. I attended high school just like my peers with an enormous difference. Directly after the school day ended, I had adult responsibilities. My countless nights of lost sleep were not spent thinking about the prom or stressing about what someone else had said about me. The lack of sleep I suffered was due to caring for an infant. I also quickly learned the emotional hardships of becoming a teenage parent. Friends became scarce; I had nothing in common with peers outside the classroom. Most did not want to hear about my son reaching memorable milestones and most certainly did not want to hear about me spending the entire night in the emergency room with him. As if complex friendships werenÃ¢â¬â¢t enough, treatment from school personnel quite possibly had the most negative impact on my emotions. Judgme...
Monday, October 21, 2019
Asthma Free Online Research Papers Asthma is a lung disease that affects approximately ten million people in the United States. (Cramer 2) In people with asthma, the airways of the lungs are hypersensitive to irritants such as cigarette smoke or allergens. When these irritants are inhaled, the airways react by constricting, or narrowing. Some people with asthma have only mild, intermittent symptoms that can be controlled without drugs. In others, the symptoms are chronic, severe, and sometime life threatening. Although researchers have learned more about the underlying causes of asthma in recent years, a definitive treatment is still unavailable. In the last decade, asthma deaths worldwide have rose 42%. (Cramer 2) The reasons for this increase are not clear; however, many experts believe that the lack of standard treatments and the inconsistent monitoring of asthma patients have contributed to the increased mortality rate. With this disease comes many questions such as what is asthma, what are the symptoms and causes, how is it diagnosis, what are the treatments, how is it prevented and maintained. In answering these typical questions people will be more informed of a disease that is killing people. Asthma is sometimes referred to as a disease of Ã¢â¬Å"twitchy lungsÃ¢â¬ , which means that the airways are extremely sensitive to irritants. The airways are the tubes that bring air from the windpipe, known as the trachea, to the lungs. These tubes are called the bronchi. Each bronchus, in turn, branches into smaller tubes called bronchioles. At the end of the bronchioles are small, balloon like structures called alveoli. The alveoli are tiny sacs that allow oxygen to diffuse from body tissues into the lungs to be exhaled. (Shier, Butler, Lewis 786-88) During an asthma attack, the bronchi and bronchioles constrict and obstruct the passage of air into the alveoli. Besides constricting, the airways may secrete copious amounts of mucus in an effort to clear the irritation from the lungs. The airway walls also swell, causing inflammation and further obstruction. As the airways become increasingly obstructed, oxygen cannot reach the small air sacs; blood levels of oxygen drop, and the bodyÃ¢â¬â¢s tissues and organs become oxygen deprived. At the same time carbon dioxide cannot escape the small air sacs for exhalation; blood levels of carbon dioxide increase, and exert a toxic effect on the tissues and organs of the body. Most of the time asthma is caused by, inhaling an allergen that sets off a chain of reactions. Ã¢â¬Å"Once asthma is present, symptoms can be set off or made worse if the patient also has rhinitis (inflammation of the lining of the nose) or sinusitis.Ã¢â¬ (Cramer 3) Acid reflux for some reason can also make asthma worse. A viral infection of the respiratory tract, aspirin, and a drug called beta-blockers (often used to treat high blood pressure) can also inflame an asthmatic reaction. (Cramer 3) In addition to cigarette smoke and various allergens, other triggers can cause asthma attacks. A cold, or other upper respiratory infections may bring on an asthma attack. Strong emotions, such as excitement, tension, or anxiety, may trigger asthma symptoms. Even exercise and extreme weather conditions, such as very cold, very hot, or very humid weather, can cause an asthma attack. Environmental exposures, such as pollution and ozone levels can also contribute to an asthma attack. (Britann ic 1) The characteristic sign of asthma is wheezing, the noisy, whistling breathing that a person makes as he or she tries to push air in and out of narrowed airways. Other symptoms of asthma include a tight chest, shortness of breath, and a cough. When diagnosing a patient for asthma, the examiner should look for maximum chest expansion while taking in air. (Cramer 5) Hunched shoulders and contracting neck muscles are other signs of narrowed airways. Nasal polyps or increased amounts of nasal secretions often noted in asthmatic patients. Ã¢â¬Å"Skin changes, like atopic dermatitis or eczema, are a tip off that the patient has allergic problems.Ã¢â¬ (Cramer 5) Inquiring about family history of asthma or allergies can be a valuable indicator of asthma. The diagnosis may be strongly suggested when typical symptoms and signs are present. A test called spirometry measures how rapidly air is exhaled and how much is retained in the lungs. Repeating the test after the patient inhales a drug that widens the air passages (a bronchodilator) will show whether the airway narrowing is reversible, which is a very typical finding in asthma. Often patients use a related instrument, called a peak flow meter, to keep track of asthma severity at home. Often, it is difficult to determine what is triggering asthma attacks. Allergy skin test may be used, although an allergic skin response does not always mean that the allergen being tested is causing the asthma. Also, the bodyÃ¢â¬â¢s immune system produces antibody to fight off that allergen, and the amount of antibody can be measured by a blood test. This will show how sensitive the patient is to a particular allergen. If the diagnosis is still in doubt, the patient can inhale a suspect allergen while using a spirometer to detect airway narrowing. Spirometry can also be repeated after a bout of exercise if exercise induced asthma is a possibility. A chest x-ray will help rule out other disorders. Currently, several drugs are used to treat asthma. Not all asthmatic drugs should be used by every asthma patient. Some patients with mild asthma only need to use medication intermittently to contr ol wheezing. Patients with more serious asthma need to take medication at regular intervals to avoid life-threatening attacks. It is important for asthma patients to see their doctors if the frequency or severity of their symptoms change. One form of medication is termed bronchodilators. Bronchodilators dilate constricted lung airways by relaxing the muscles, which line the bronchial tubes. Oral bronchodilators include theophylline; theophyllines counterpart, aminophylline, is used through a needle in the vein for severe episodes of asthma. During severe, acute attacks of asthma, injections of epinephrine are given just under the patients skin. Epinephrine has a quick, but short lasting effect of bronchodilation. Most asthma patients are given bronchodilators such as abuterol that are used in a mist form that is inhaled from either a special inhaler device or an aerosol machine. Some patients are instructed to use their bronchodilator at regular intervals, while others may just be told to use the inhaler if they notice the beginning of an asthma attack. The inhaled medications are quick acting because they a re directly applied to the constricted airways. Another type of treatment is called Anti-Inflammatory drugs. Anti- Inflammatory drugs reduce the swelling and inflammation of the airways. These drugs can be inhaled or taken in pill form. Two types of anti-inflammatory drugs that are prescribed for asthma patients: Chromolyn sodium and Corticosteroids. Chromolyn sodium is also prescribed for people with allergies, and it has few side effects. Oral corticosteriods are very effective in treating asthma, but should be reserved for severe cases, due to their serious side effects. (Cramer 5) Short-term side effects include increased appetite, weight gain, hypertension, and fluid retention. Over the long-term corticosteriods may cause osteoporosis, cataracts, and impaired immune response. These side effects usually preclude the use of corticosteriods for long periods of time. In fact, short courses of steroids are preferred. These Ã¢â¬Å"steroid burstsÃ¢â¬ are given over about a weekÃ¢â¬â¢s time and then discontinued, as a treatment for a sudden sever asthma attack, perhaps brought on by exposure to an allergen or viral infection. Inhaled corticosteroids have few side effects. These medications are also prescribed for allergy patients. Unlike their oral counterparts, these drugs can be taken for much longer periods of time. They are especially useful in controlling moderate asthma. A new asthma medication called leukotriene receptor antagonists (LTRAs) are being used to interfere with the actions of a class of chemicals called leukotrienes. Leukotrienes help produce the symptoms of asthma. Interference with their actions decreases asthma symptomology. LTRAs are believed to greatly reduce asthma severity, when taken daily. (Britannica 2) To avoid attacks patients can take certain preventative steps. Asthma can be avoided by doing the following: 1. Avoid being outside during the early morning and late afternoon hours, when pollen levels are highest. 2. Since dust has been associated with asthma attacks, thoroughly and frequently clean the indoor environment. Dust and vacuum everyday. Wash bed linens in hot, soapy water every few days or so. Replace air filters in air conditioners and furnaces regularly. 3. During hot weather, use air conditioning. (Harrington 55) Eliminating the irritant is the key. If asthma is brought on by cigarette smoke, the patient must avoid this irritant. If asthma is brought on by exercise, the person should try to find a level of exertion that is comfortable. Using an inhaled bronchodilator before exercising may also control asthma symptoms. For all persons with asthma, communication with and regular visits to their physicians are essential components of treatment. Without periodic checkups, the physician cannot monitor progress or potential worsening of symptoms. So, the most important aspect of prevention and treatment for asthma patients is the regular physician visit. Asthma is something that many people live with from day to day. For example, my brother was diagnosed with asthma when my family moved from Alaska. He was a one-year-old baby that was in and out of hospitals all through out his childhood years. At first the doctors wanted to place him in a bubble because it was like he was allergic to everything. C ome to find out he had not built up an immune system to many different kinds of allergens because in Alaska the vegetation of the land is very different. Now this was a very traumatic time for my family because my brother soon became diagnosed with chronic asthma, which is a form of old peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s asthma. The doctors stated that he might not live because he was always so ill. Well it has been sixteen years and instead of the asthma progressing it seems to have regressed extremely. The only bad thing about all of this is that the medicines he was on have very serious side effects and we are not sure how the side effects will affect him. So, even the worse case scenarios can turn into good. The more people know about the disease the better they can handle it. This disease has come a long way since it first entered my familyÃ¢â¬â¢s life. Doctors now know more about the causes, symptoms, and how to diagnosis the disease than they did in 1985. 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Sunday, October 20, 2019
Lord of the Flies Book Review Lord of the Flies Book Review Lord of the Flies Book Review If you are looking for the free Lord of the Flies book review, you have found it. The following essay is short but comprehensive. If you are in need of individual book review writing help, do not hesitate to try our professional book review writing service. We are ready to help you with writing review on any book and within any deadline! Our prices are moderate and we guarantee authentic writing. You may also review tips on how to write a book report as well as article on writing a critique: Lord of the Flies Book Review Free Sample Lord of the Flies is more than an adventure story or allegory because of this very insistence upon "odd" objects. By placing his boys upon a mysterious island where is it? Golding forces them to explore the landscape. Earth, air, fire, water these shape and hold the meanings of existence. The four elements the four boys. How convenient it would be if Golding were to equate them! Piggy and fire? Jack and earth? Simon and air? Ralph and water? But we feel cheated. There is no one element for each boy because Golding realizes that even "primitive life" remains mysterious. There is no doubt, however, that just as the Elizabethans employed the four humours based on the four elements he associates personality and element. This association is more lasting than the incantation of old names. The four boys constantly touch the elements, whether or not they realize they do. Because they are bound to different elements (in different combinations) they battle one another. And they torment themselves in their desire to rule (or be ruled by) only one element. Throughout the novel Golding refers to the illusive quality of the island. Simon, for example, sees "a pearly stillness, so that what was real seemed illusive and without definition." Piggy peers "anxiously into the luminous veil that hung between him and the world." Jack peers "into what to him was almost complete darkness" when he first arrives on the beach. Because the elements are shadowy and ambiguous (and threatening?), they defy the vision of all the boys, including Simon and Piggy. Thus we have a completely ironic situation. The boys are forced to return to the elements to exist "originally" but they are so deceived by magical qualities that they cannot clearly judge their experience. Although many critics have complained about the gimmick at the end of the novel the boys are saved; the officer doesn't "understand" the violence which has occurred it is justified because it is another "appearance." The officer allows his "eyes to rest on the trim cruiser in the distance," but we doubt that he can see it or the water with full knowledge. Lord of the Flies is therefore a novel of faulty vision. Can the boys ever see the elements? Are the elements really there? Is a marriage between elements and consciousness possible? The novel is not about Evil, Innocence, or Free Will; it goes beyond (or under) these abstractions by questioning the very ability to formulate them. If you are looking for tips on writing Jane Eyre essay or Great Expectations essay, you will definitely find great tips on our blog! Lord of the Flies Book Review Custom Writing The above book review is free and can be easily accessed by thousands of students. If you are looking for individual help with writing your book review, if you want to get an original book review written especially for you, do not hesitate to order custom book review writing service at our site. We do not make false promises and we follow all instruction points. Our writers are native English speakers. Interesting posts: Papers Psychology Research Paper Proposal Research Help Writing a Research Paper Critical Analysis of a Research Paper Argumentative Research Paper Topics
Saturday, October 19, 2019
Conduct Disorders Over Agression - Essay Example If left untreated, it may result in social behavioral problems leading to unstable relationships, and severe psychiatric disorders. Conduct disorder and overt aggression among young children and adolescents is a serious health condition as it exposes the society to youth who are likely to inflict physical harm or injury to others and at the same time are extremely vulnerable to cause self inflicting pain by indulging in self deteriorating activities such as substance abuse, incarceration, suicide, homicide, and depression among others. The psychiatric diagnosis of conduct disorder comprises of a set of standards related to aggression, and hence it offers researchers with a vague approximation of its prevalence among young children and adolescents across all communities around the globe. Conduct disorders and overtly aggressive behavior is a clinical concept which refers to the disturbance or tumultuous behavior among the patients which causes a grave violation of the basic rights of other individuals and disrupts the social fabric of the society that we live in. Over physical aggression often involves inflicting physical harm or injury, and use of weapons and requires medical treatment and attention. Past studies and researches conducted in this field, claim that young children with antisocial behavior tend to display a certain degree of "specialization". On the basis of analysis conducted during the course of this research, it was observed that antisocial behavior among children can be understood from two diverse perspectives which includes overt aggression i.e., aggressive destructive behavior and covert misconduct. Overt aggression is largely confrontative in nature and according to studies, is largely motivated by interpersonal conflicts, anger, and a desire to attain and prove superiority and dominance over others. Covert misconduct on the other hand refers to non aggressive anti social acts
Friday, October 18, 2019
Network Security and Its Business Impact Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words
Network Security and Its Business Impact - Essay Example Securing and stabilizing the network ensures the confidentiality of data and effects positively towards the productivity and functionality of a business. Providing secure information technology (IT) services to colleges and universities is a special and unique challenge. Unfettered and timely access to all enormous quantiÃ ties of information is higher educationÃ¢â¬â¢s lifeÃ blood and is a key to its success in educating its students and generating new ideas and know-how. The situation becomes more challenging when a new technology is added and integrated into the existing setup and same or advanced level of accessibility and protection is expected. Thus, the need of the hour is to identify the security loopholes and develop security policies especially for environments where the wired and wireless networks co-exist. 3 Situation Overview: The research is set in MajanCollege in the context of improvising the security of the college network after adding the wireless network (Wire less LAN) with the existing wired network (Local LAN). 4 Presenting the Problem Definition: The problem for the Network administrators is focused on understanding that the security needs to be strengthened when a wireless network is added to the wired network. 5 Real World Target: The major benefit in the real world if the problem is resolved or partially resolved is that the network administrators would confidently revise the security policies every time a wireless network is added to their network rather than continuing with the existing policies for the wired network and not being susceptible to security breaches saving the confidentiality of the data which is an asset to business. 6 What is Security? Computer security is a complex of actions and activities aimed at creating... This study declares that providing secure information technology (IT) services to colleges and universities is a special and unique challenge. Unfettered and timely access to all enormous quantiÃ ties of information is higher educationÃ¢â¬â¢s lifeÃ blood and is a key to its success in educating its students and generating new ideas and know-how. The situation becomes more challenging when a new technology is added and integrated into the existing setup and same or advanced level of accessibility and protection is expected.Ã Thus, the need of the hour is to identify the security loopholes and develop security policies especially for environments where the wired and wireless networks co-exist.Ã As the discussion stresses the major benefit in the real world if the problem is resolved or partially resolved is that the network administrators would confidently revise the security policies every time a wireless network is added to their network rather than continuing with the exi sting policies for the wired network and not being susceptible to security breaches saving the confidentiality of the data which is an asset to business.Ã The importance strategically of this work is that the integrated network security for wired and wireless network will help the college in securing valuable data, improving network systems performance, protecting networks from internal and external threats, to enable higher availability and accessibility to the network.
Professional Application - Essay Example The different platforms have successfully delivered the objectives of the business and created credibility of the brand and helped developed committed database of clientele and niche market. Introduction Integrated marketing techniques have emerged as powerful way of processing communication and sending critical messages across wider database of users and customers (Kotler et al., 2007). The synergistic mix of promotional channels has increasingly become more effective and efficient way to market goods and products. Marketing communication therefore is being conceptualized as an approach to business, making it an integral part of business strategy and planning (Wilson and Gilligan, 2003). It is vital element of business as it helps to develop committed clientele whose changing preferences are met through customization of products and services that meet their requirements. Indeed, in the age of advancing technology, customers have become more informed and put greater pressure on the m arketers. Looking at these various compulsions, Steve Madden footwear would use three different formats of media to market its products which are described as below. Part 1 Media choice 1: Broadcast advertising Broadcast advertising encompasses television and radio based advertising. Steve Madden is well-established footwear brand that needs to maintain its niche market position through unique advertising that can reach mass customer base to maintain its competitive edge in the industry. Television advertising at prime time would be used to target segmented demographic market. Television is powerful medium that influences consumer behavior through its visual and textual content that are able to connect with peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s ideas regarding the products and services. Its major objective would be to influence the buying behavior of the customers and motivate them to use their products. The secondary goals would be to maintain its visibility and create awareness regarding the robustness of the Steve Madden shoes that are preferred by the celebrities who endorse them on advertisements. The main advantage would be that it would create mass awareness of its new product lines and help people to evaluate and process the information as visual content tends to be remembered longer than print media. It exploits modelling theory that relies on observing the behaviour of others that often results in positive outcome (Schiffman & Kanuk, 2007). People identify with models and events and eventually get motivated to buy the product. The key disadvantage is the massive budget that could be difficult to maintain for long. Television advertising is expensive but as it is also the most effective platform of marketing goods, the decision would be beneficial for the company on a macro basis. The advertisement would use sports celebrity for showcasing its rough and tough product line in sports channel during rugby and baseball matches. It would use local channels and regional distribu tion channels as advertising platform. Entertainment channel at prime time on local television would target women and children. Advertisements on sports channel would target teenagers and young professional. The entertainment channel would focus on women and children and would use emotional appeal to influence their purchase behavior. The advertisements would be shown on break-time till matches last or the soap or entertainment program runs in the
Thursday, October 17, 2019
Sports marketing - Research Paper Example They may also sponsor individual players or in some cases, teams. (Huguelet, 2010). Planning of the whole process of sports marketing commences with the objectives of the corporation and its mission statement. (Kriemadis and Terzoudis, 2007, p. 32). The process of marketing sports fundamentally involves use of 4 Ps, namely, product, pricing, promotion and place (Summers and Morgan, 2005, p. 6). Indeed, these are the 4 most critical factors that decide the success of a sports event. Ã¢â¬Å"The level of support for a football club is a key variable for matchday revenue and also determines most other club revenue streamsÃ¢â¬ (Kase, 2007, p. 278). Sports and business have many traits in common. For example, Ã¢â¬Å"sport and business share values such as the magnitude of teamwork, line of attack and striving also toward a goalÃ¢â¬ (Hameed, n.d.). The professionals involved in sports marketing also work to address the concerns of an individual country by promoting its team. They may also work for organizers of some professional tournament. Either way, they promote the individual team or event. Sports marketing professionals cardinally make use of advertisements to achieve their objects. Radio, internet, newspapers and television are commonly chosen as the means to announce games coming in near future. Many times, the sports marketing professionals make use of unusual strategies to gather large number of visitors to see the match. They do so by offering to give away their products to the public via lottery or such other schemes. Also, many sports marketing professionals carry out market research to investigate the popularity of individual athletes among public. They require this information so that they may be able to launch a successful advertisement by making that athlete, part of the advertisement of their product. Entities like Fantasy Frontline remain on the forefronts of sports news reporting, and hence, play an