Thursday, November 28, 2019
Affordable papers Essay Higher education is a ticket to successful and bright future. Getting a degree in College or University opens a door in front of the students into their further careers, and helps them to be more qualified and preferable candidates for the good job position. In a matter of fact, the way of obtaining a higher academic degree is a quite challenging and requires several years of a sleepless nights, lack of time and over studying to complete an assignments provided by professors. Writing of academic papers during your education takes one of the most important parts of studying process. Essays, theses, case studies, reviews, research papers, personal statements and many other assignments are just a part of the challenging papers what students will require to write. Every single writing task what student receives in College or University requires in depth research on the specific topic, a well knowledge of the citation style to format the paper, good writing skills, great knowledge of English language and a lot of time. While many of students have to work on the part-time jobs to afford their education, unfortunately too many of them do not have so much time to spent doing a research on their assignments and preparing them. Luckily, there is a solution for this situation. In order to help students who are facing lack of time or any other issues with their academic tasks, there are affordable custom writing services which provide academic assistance to the students from all around the world and with any type of the papers. We will write a custom essay sample on Affordable papers specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Affordable papers specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Affordable papers specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Affordable paper writing services provided by our service is the best way to unload your tight schedule, save your time and keep your marks high. Everything what you need to do is to place an order for your assignment with us, and rest will be done by the team of our professional writers. During your order placement you will be required to provide us with instructions for writing your paper, select delivery urgency, amount of sources what should be used in your writing, paper type and your academic level. Once all this information will be received, we will get started to work on your paper and will deliver it due to selected by you date. To make the prices even more convenient for you, prices for our affordable papers are set on the minimum market level and depends on your academic level, urgency of the paper you need and the paper type. With us you will get highly qualified academic assistance at the cheapest price possible, meanwhile quality of a paper what you will receive will be high and match all academic standards. In addition to affordable prices provided by our academic paper writing company, we also ensure that your assignment will be absolutely plagiarism free, as well as free of any grammar or spelling errors. When you order your paper with us, you are sure that you will get your paper at affordable price and our quality control team will make sure that your writing will be checked by special plagiarism detection software, thus, has no plagiarism. As well as you are sure that your assignments will be written from scratch by professional writer who specialized on the specific topic and subject area. Even more, we are pleased to say that all our customers are provided with unlimited free revisions, which allows them to update, modify and bring any corrections into their papers even when the paper has been already delivered. Also, we would like to put an emphasis on our flexible discount system which provides all our returning clients with an opportunity to get a lifetime discounts for essays and all other academic papers writing service. If you would like to try our service, you can do it even 15% cheaper than usually by using your first order special discount code. If you are a student, experiencing lack of time, have missed some classes or just need help completing your custom assignment due to any other reason, affordable papers provided by our writing company are exactly what you need. By hiring us, you hire an authentic affordable writing service which works for your goods. Order essays, term papers, personal statements, case studies, dissertations, book reviews and any other custom papers of superior quality with us at affordable price!
Sunday, November 24, 2019
What Is Stanford EPGY and Summer College Should I Join SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips Have you heard about Stanford EPGY, a summer program for high school students? Curious about what it would be like to spend a summer on Stanford's campus? Well, it turns out that the program formerly known as Stanford EPGY is now two different programs. We will break down what the different programs are and outline the benefits and costs of each. Feature image via Wikimedia What Exactly Is Stanford EPGY? Stanford EPGY (which stands for Educational Program for Gifted Youth) used to encompass summer programs at Stanford for middle and high school students as well as online courses available year round. However, EPGY has now split up into two different components Ã¢â¬â the online component (now known as GiftedandTalented.com, a website still associated with Stanford) and the summer programs component (now called Stanford Pre-Collegiate Summer Institutes). This can make it confusing for students to figure out which program might be best for them. Furthermore, there is also a program called High School Summer College, where you can attend Stanford for a full academic quarter during the summer and take actual Stanford classes. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s sometimes overshadowed by EPGY so high school students donÃ¢â¬â¢t hear about it. I realize the fact that Stanford has these three high school programs can be confusing, but I can guide you through it Ã¢â¬â I participated in some of these programs as both a high school student and as a counselor during college! I will go through each program, explain what it is, how to apply, and whether or not it would be worth it for you to participate. GiftedandTalented.com Image via GiftedandTalented.com. What Is GiftedandTalented.com? GiftedandTalented.com, which used to be a part of Stanford EPGY, is a way for advanced students to take courses online to access more advanced topics or supplement what they are learning in school. Stanford moved to GiftedandTalented.com with the help of an outside company (Redbird Advanced Learning) to make their EPGY online program more convenient. The service is more responsive and the interface is easier to use than it was with the old EPGY online courses. Courses span from typical math courses like geometry and calculus to specialized programming and physics classes. There are a few language arts courses as well. How to Apply You can enroll in any course at GiftedandTalented.com as long as you can pay the fee (about $495 per each 3-month course) and meet the prerequisites. You can look through the courses and apply online here. There is also financial aid you can apply for by emailing financialaid@GiftedandTalented.com or calling 844-944-3833. Is GiftedandTalented.com Worth It? Whether GiftedandTalented.com is a good choice for you depends on your needs. If you want to challenge yourself but donÃ¢â¬â¢t have access to honors classes, AP courses, or other resources near you, online courses are a great way to add advanced courses to your schedule. Especially if you tend to be good at learning independently or outside of traditional classroom settings, online classes can be great. If your high school does offer more challenging classes, or you have access to a local community college or university, you might want to consider taking courses locally instead. Your high school classes are likely cheaper than additional online classes, and honors, AP, and IB programs can offer rigorous curriculums close to home (learn more about AP and IB here). This is especially true if traditional classroom settings work well for you. Either way, explore all of your potential advanced class options before signing up for any online courses. Stanford Pre-Collegiate Summer Institutes Image via Stanford Pre-Collegiate Summer Institutes What Is Stanford Pre-Collegiate Summer Institutes? Stanford Pre-Collegiate Summer Institutes (SPCS), formerly EPGY, is a residential summer program where you take an academic course and participate in typical camp activities (sports, crafts, and local excursions). You can do SCPS as a high school student. Most of the programs run for three weeks. You can choose to attend either Session 1 (June 19 - July 8 in 2016), Session 2 (July 11 - July 30), or take a course that spans both sessions. For each sessionyou take one class intensively, and live with the students taking the same course. Course options span from Creative Writing to Particle Physics to Robotics to International Relations to Cryptography, just to name a few. The course options have been expanded recently so there are more options to choose from than in the past. The schedule typically consists of class in the morning, discussion sections or class work in the early afternoon, and activities later in the afternoon and evening. Your time is quite structured throughout the program, though you get to choose which activities to participate in. Special Programs Within SPCS In addition to the various SPCS course options that we linked to above, there are also two special programs within SPCS. Read about them below. Summer Humanities Institute This is a program centered around rigorous humanities courses in history and philosophy, taught by Stanford professors (note that some of the SPCS courses are taught by instructors and not full-on professors). Full disclosure: I worked at the Summer Humanities Institute in 2013 as a Residential Counselor. To be honest, I was jealous this program wasn't around when I was in high school! The courses were definitely rigorous, on par with typical Stanford courses. The students also got the chance to write long research papers while working with the counselors, teaching assistants, and professors. In short, the Summer Humanities Institute provided an intense academic experience while also giving high school students interested in the humanities a chance to get to know like-minded students from across the country and the world. Furthermore, the SHI has expanded for 2016, with six different courses being offered. (The schedule is the same as SPCS, with two sessions to choose from.) If you're looking into any of Stanford's summer programs, you should consider the Summer Humanities Institute, especially if you're interested in literature, history, or philosophy. Summer Arts Institute New in 2016, SPCS is now running the Summer Arts Institute. With courses centered on the arts, including theater, music, and architecture, this is a program geared towards students specifically interested in the arts. Stanford has been increasingly committed to the arts, so this summer program gives high school students a chance to see Stanford's resources for budding artists, musicians, and actors. No previous experience in the arts is necessary to apply, so the program is accessible to a wide range of students. Your application will be evaluated holistically, meaning your grades, test scores, and individual experiences will all be considered. This is a great program to look into if you have specific interest in the arts but want a more challenging, academic experience than your typical summer drama or dance camp. How to Apply To apply to SPCS, you will apply to either the class or special program you want to be in Ã¢â¬â youÃ¢â¬â¢ll list your preferences on your application. Your application will be reviewed with those courses and/or programs in mind. Keep in mind some courses (like the Computer Stience courses, for example) tend to be more popular and therefore more competitive. The Summer Humanities Institute is also getting increasingly competitive year to year. We recommend applying for these programs as early as possible if youÃ¢â¬â¢re set on getting in to them. YouÃ¢â¬â¢ll submit an application with your demographic info, a $50 fee, work samples, your most recent transcript or grades, a teacher recommendation, and recent standardized score report (for more about these components see the materials page). You can apply as early as January 20 (the early decision deadline) or by March 30 at the latest. As soon as you decide youÃ¢â¬â¢re interested, I recommend you go ahead and apply. This will give you the best shot at admission to your first choice class or program. SPCS is selective, so youÃ¢â¬â¢re more likely to get in if you apply to a less popular class. That said, getting into SPCS is not nearly as difficult as getting into Stanford. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t be deterred from applying because you think you wonÃ¢â¬â¢t get in! Tuition Tuition for SPCS runs at $6300 for a high school session. The Summer Arts Institute is $6,000 for the session, as well as the Summer Humanities Institute. Tuition includes instruction, housing, meals, and field trips. You can apply for financial aid after youÃ¢â¬â¢ve submitted your program application. YouÃ¢â¬â¢re encouraged to apply early since there is a limited amount. Again, if youÃ¢â¬â¢re set on going to SPCS but think you will need financial aid, apply as early as possible to maximize your chances of getting financial aid. Is SPCS Worth It? While I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t participate in SPCS as a high school student, I did work there as a Stanford student and thought it was a great program. You can get a rigorous academic experience while also getting a taste of what itÃ¢â¬â¢s like to live on StanfordÃ¢â¬â¢s campus. Especially since you are only taking one class, itÃ¢â¬â¢s a great opportunity to delve deeply into one topic youÃ¢â¬â¢re interested in. Students in the Summer Humanities Institute got to use Stanford's Green Library to work on their research papers. Image via Stanford University Libraries. You can also use SPCS as an opportunity to take a class you canÃ¢â¬â¢t usually take as a high school student, like robotics or philosophy. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s also possible to get a letter of recommendation from your instructor or professor at SPCS, which can be a boost to your college applications. However, you do have to follow a daily schedule and, from experience, you are supervised much more than the High School Summer College students are. If you want a more independent summer experience, you might consider High School Summer College instead. Stanford High School Summer College Image via Stanford High School Summer College. What Is High School Summer College? In High School Summer College (HSSC), you get to participate in a full academic quarter at Stanford over the summer, which lasts eight weeks. You take real Stanford classes alongside Stanford students and live in dorms on campus. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a big commitment! I did this program when I was in high school so trust me when I say itÃ¢â¬â¢s not your typical summer program. You take two or three classes during the summer. That might not sound like a lot, but these are Stanford courses so they will more than fill up your time! This also means you get a Stanford transcript with actual Stanford courses on it at the end of the summer. This sets HSSC apart from the SPCS programs and many other summer university programs you might be considering. Furthermore, you live on campus in Stanford dorms. The RAs are current Stanford students. This means you really get a sense of what it would be like to go to Stanford. The RAs run clubs and there are weekend excursions to places like San Francisco and Monterrey. While you are monitored much more closely than you are in college Ã¢â¬â there is a curfew Ã¢â¬â this program is excellent if you want to get a taste of what college will be like. Aside from your classes and dining hall hours, youÃ¢â¬â¢re free to set your own schedule Ã¢â¬â when you want to study, when you want to hang out with friends, and when to participate in clubs. You can also take advantage of on campus resources like practice rooms if you play an instrument, or use the gym and recreation facilities. How to Apply to HSSC To apply, submit the online application, which is a college-like application that includes an essay, test scores (if you want), and a letter of recommendation. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a selective program, though the program doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t release data on how selective. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s definitely not nearly as selective as getting into Stanford regularly. Still, put your best foot forward with a great essay and the best standardized test score you have available if youÃ¢â¬â¢re set on getting in. The program usually fills up and has a waitlist, so apply as early as possible. You can apply beginning in the fall. Try to submit your application by March or earlier if you're set on getting on a spot. When I did HSSC back in summer 2009, we stayed in the Lagunita Court dorms. All Summer College students are guaranteed housing on Stanford's campus. Image via Wikimedia. Tuition HSSC costs close to $12,000 for the summer, including books, housing, and personal expenses. You can apply for financial aid, though you should recognize itÃ¢â¬â¢s limited and not a guarantee. Again, the earlier you apply, the more likely you are to get financial aid. Is HSSC Worth It? ItÃ¢â¬â¢s worth noting that HSSC is a very expensive program, putting it out of the reach of many families. It also takes up pretty much your entire summer, which can make it hard to schedule in for many students. That said, I did this program as a student in Summer 2009 and had a great experience. I really loved getting to take real Stanford courses Ã¢â¬â and even got a jumpstart on what eventually became one of my areas of study at Stanford by taking an Introduction to International Relations class. Furthermore, I think doing very well in my courses that summer strongly helped my Stanford application. I would caution students that if you do go, be careful about how you spend your time. Because the program encourages students to set their own schedules, many students got caught up in the social aspects of the program and neglected reading, studying, and problem sets. There is no point in spending money on the chance to take Stanford courses and then wasting that money by not putting in a sincere effort. And finally, while I did this program and eventually got into Stanford, it is not by any means the only way to get admitted. You can take advantage of college courses, research opportunities, and volunteering close to home and put together an excellent application for Stanford. Make sure you explore a range of summer options before deciding on something as intense as HSSC. Will Doing a Summer Program at Stanford Get Me Admitted? The short answer is no. Each of these programs is less competitive than getting into Stanford for real, which means many students who do these programs end up getting rejected from Stanford. In other words, these programs are definitely NOT a guarantee of admission to Stanford. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t go to one of these just because you think itÃ¢â¬â¢s a free ticket to Stanford. That said, doing an academic summer program is one way to show your intellectual interests to college admissions officers, and also to demonstrate your academic strengths. This is true of programs at Stanford as well as programs at other universities. Again, itÃ¢â¬â¢s important to use your time at these programs wisely. Do well in the classes, get to know the instructors/professors, and get the most out of the experience as possible. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t get caught up in the social experience and neglect the academics. Doing well and/or getting an extra letter of recommendation from a professor or instructor could increase your chances of getting into Stanford, but you should make sure the other parts of your application are strong as well Ã¢â¬â including your GPA, SAT/ACT scores, etc. Unfortunately, doing really well in a summer program wonÃ¢â¬â¢t make up for a low GPA or a less-than-average SAT/ACT score. The bottom line is that academic programs at Stanford are a great way to challenge yourself, meet other like-minded high school students, and add something extra to your college application. Just donÃ¢â¬â¢t expect them to guarantee your admission to Stanford, and be aware there are likely other, cheaper options to enrich your studies close to home. Image via SLAC. WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s Next? Also studying for the SAT/ACT? Want a score good enough for Stanford or Ivy League schools? Learn how to come up with a target SAT or ACT score based on your dream schools, and also read about ACT and SAT scores for the Ivy League. Have you already taken the SAT/ACT? Thinking about retaking it but not sure if it will be worth it? Learn for sure if you should take the test again. Shooting for a perfect SAT/ACT score? Get tips from our full scorer for the SAT and the ACT. Considering the AP or IB program? Learn the differences between the two and which program you should do. Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points?We've written a guide for each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. Download it for free now:
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Enthymeme's in Obama's 2008 election and the effectiveness on our current Y, technological generation - Essay Example Furthermore, it also tells about the successful strategies to use media or new media for reaching and engaging millennial generation towards some certain activities. Ã¢â¬Å"Obama comes out as a moderate American who is really different from his other party fellows. Although Obama convinces his listeners through reasoning and logic in almost his every political speech, his present speech is, from first to the last paragraph, full of the use of logical style of talking.Ã¢â¬ (Alvi and Baseer) Every president of the United States including the current president Barrack Obama constructs enthymemes according to their specific targeted audience or crowd. Ã¢â¬Å"This separation is evident in his minor premises both when he specifically addresses the target audience and when he uses a word or idea that suggests that he is trying to persuade a particular group. I am also contending that each presidentÃ¢â¬â¢s speech can be broken down into numerous major and minor premises that lead to one overarching conclusion in each speech that those premises support.Ã¢â¬ (Lawson, 7) THE CONCEPT OF ENTHYMEME Ã¢â¬Å"An enthymeme, while a type of syllogism, does not contain the same indisputable logical truths as the formal syllogism. It is a rhetorical syllogism, or informally stated syllogism, which contains same three elements as a complete syllogism: a major premise, a minor premise, and a conclusion.Ã¢â¬ (Lawson, 8) However, one of these elements in an enthymeme is understood as it is already known as a general knowledge or some belief held by the audience as well. Basically, an enthymeme is considered as an unfinished argument in a way that not all the parts in this are exactly expressed or definitely stated. Therefore, it is dependent upon the previous mentioned assumptions which were the general knowledge or prior beliefs or knowledge regarding the subject. Furthermore, the speaker also relies upon the presupposition which helps them build their arguments in the futur e. This is the concept developed by the great Aristotle. According to his assumption and belief, enthymeme is an argument which basically opposes to an assumed idea or a topic which is either an indisputable fact or it is proved with the help of science and has science support. However, there is no one specific definition for the word Ã¢â¬ËenthymemeÃ¢â¬â¢ as its meaning differs from person to person and what they think of this particular word. A recent study has shown that Ã¢â¬Å"Scholars have been trying to define and redefine enthymeme through various philosophical and literary readings of AristotleÃ¢â¬â¢s texts. Each definition contains similar elements, but none of them are exactly alike.Ã¢â¬ (Lawson, 12) Because of this fact mentioned that Ã¢â¬ËenthymemeÃ¢â¬â¢ has various definitions and analysis with respect to that particular enthymeme. One early scholar named E.M. Cope presented a definition that has been the core element for many different scholars when it come s to discussing enthymeme. Lloyd Bitzer, R.C. Seaton and Carol Poster are the few names who follow E.M. Cope regarding enthymeme. Seaton points out that Ã¢â¬Å"Cope bases his initial definition on another one set forth by Sir William Hamilton, and later Ã¢â¬Ëreverses his own decision in a note with the remark that the view given in the text Ã¢â¬Å¾was adopted mainly in deference to the decided opinion expressed by Sir William HamiltonÃ¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬ (Seaton 114). But, Bitzer points out that Aristotle refutes this
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Tort of Negligence - Assignment Example The duty of Care Ã¢â¬â This is the first thing which needs to be proved.Did the defendant owe a duty of care to the plaintiff? As Clumsy was your employee; this relationship falls under the established categories and thus it is clear that a duty of care towards clumsy was present. The pool of water might have been left there by another employee but he was asked to keep the floor clean by you and thus the ultimate responsibility in the hotel to keep your employees safe lies with you. (Roger LeRoy Miller, 2008) Ã Was the Duty of Care Breached Ã¢â¬â To establish a breach of duty under the tort of negligence it needs to be proved that the defendant failed to do what a reasonable person would have done in similar circumstances? (Roger LeRoy Miller, 2008) The failure to exercise required standard of care is regarded as an act of negligence under the law. In this case, as the manager of the restaurant, it is my duty to ensure that employees have a safe environment to work in which does not cause any injury or harm to them. As water was spilled over the floor, a reasonable person would have kept the floor clean Ã¢â¬â so there was a breach of duty. Even if the water was spilled on the floor Ã¢â¬â the reasonable thing to do would have been to put up a Ã¢â¬Å"Wet FloorÃ¢â¬ sign in order to warn anyone approaching the area. As neither was the floor kept clean and nor was a warning sign placed; it can be reasonably proved that there was a breach of the duty of care on the part of manager of the restaurant. Ã Damage/ Injury Caused by the Breach of Duty Ã¢â¬â The plaintiff needs to establish that due to a breach of the duty of care on the part of the defendant he suffered some sort of damage or injury. This damage or injury would not have been caused if there was no breach of the duty of care.
Monday, November 18, 2019
The History of Iraq - Essay Example The British came to this region to take part in and control business activities. After all, Iraq is one of the countries which are endowed by oil wells which needed to be exploited at whatever costs. I am certain that this is the reason why the British colonial expansion by brought a lot of socio-political stability in the region. Indeed, their exclusivist ideologies widened the Shia-Sunni rift which had characterized Iraq for a very long time. I would like to agree with this student for giving a true version of the history of Iraq. First, he is right for saying that the Ottoman Empire had been in control of the larger parts of the Middle East especially before the end of the World War I. as he reports, their regime came to an end especially after losing the war to more superior powers such as the British. The student is also right for reporting that the alliance between the Ottoman Empire and the Germans did not bear any fruit because they lost the war before eventually getting stripped of their colonial territories like Iraq. Moreover, I am in a strong agreement with his student for accurately reporting that Iraq, as a nation, was created from three provinces including Bagdad, Basra, and Mosul. Indeed, the curving of IraqÃ¢â¬â¢s geographical boundaries would later bring more problems as it became one of the reasons for constant rivalries between its nationals. In fact, as the student says, it partly contributed to the unending Iraq-Syria conflict over the ISIS attempts to realign the earlier Ottoman boundary.
Friday, November 15, 2019
The need for reward management and systems Reward management is not just about money. As shown in the above diagram, it is concerned with intrinsic as well as extrinsic rewards and with non-financial as well as financial rewards. Intrinsic rewards arise from the nature the job itself. Decenzo and Robbins ( 2005, p.274) stated that intrinsic rewards are self initiated rewards like pride in ones work, a sense of accomplishment or being part of the job. Intrinsic rewards related to responsibility and achievement they are inherent in individuals and not imposed from outside. On the other hand, extrinsic rewards arise from the factors associated with the job context such as financial rewards, promotion and benefits. They are external to the job and come from outside source. All reward systems are based on the assumptions of attracting, retaining and motivating people. Rewards are of two type Financial and non-financial rewards. Many people view money as the sole motivator but many studies have found that among employees surveyed, other non financial reward also motivate them and influence the level of performance. A recent study of reward practice by CIPDs shows that higher proportion of employers have adopted a total reward approach, in which they try to align the financial and non-financial elements. Non financial rewards indirectly increase workers financial position. It differs from workers to workers. For example an employee may value office furniture and other may find it useless whereas financial rewards can be wages, bonuses, or indirectly paid sick leaves and paid vacation. They are mainly of three types such as profit sharing, job evaluation and merit rating. However, Decenzo and Robbins (2005) classified financial rewards as shown in the diagram above as performance based, implied membership based and explicit membership based. They mentioned that performance based use commissions, piecework pay plans, incentive system, group bonuses, merit or other node of payment for performance whereas membership based rewards include cost of living increases, benefits and salary increases attributable to the labour market conditions, seniority, qualifications, and specialised skill. Membership-based rewards may attract many employees on the whole when the extent of the reward increas es with seniority.Ã Though, there are drawbacks:Ã They discourage poor performers from leaving and people from leaving the organization, they indirectly motivate job performance. However, Seniority-based rewards lessen turnover because the cost of leaving raise with the employers duration of service. 2.3 REWARD MANAGEMENT LINKED TO THEORIES OF MOTIVATION Employees motivation depends on the perception of achieving the reward, i.e. their expectations. Motivation theory describes why people at work act in the way they do, and what organisations can do to persuade people to apply their efforts and abilities in ways that will help to achieve the organisations goals as well as satisfying their own needs. Everyone has their own needs and a different set of goals. Employees can motivate themselves in different ways that will guide them to expect that their goals will be achieved whereas management can motivate people through methods like pay, promotion and praise. Motivation is important because there is reward. People work because they get revenue to spend on their individual, family and society needs. Some needs are the basics of life, what individual needs to survive physiologically. Maslow defined the hierarchy of needs with essential physiological needs at the base and going up through safety, social needs and ends in the need for self-fulfillment. However, some critics say that there is little empirical evidence to support this model. Herzberg differentiated between firstly hygiene extrinsic factors such as pay and organisation strategy and measures that will cause dissatisfaction in the workplace if absent or insufficient. Secondly, motivators which are intrinsic factors such as the worth of the work, attainment, appreciation, responsibility and potential for growth which will positively motivate people. Maslows Hierarchy of Needs and Herzbergs Two Factor Theory are a content theory of motivation. They both suggest that needs should be satisfied for the employee to be motivated but, Herzberg argue that only the higher levels of the Maslow Hierarchy (e.g. self-actualisation, esteem needs) act as a motivator. The remaining needs can only cause dissatisfaction if not explained clearly. Thus he stated that satisfaction and dissatisfaction were not necessary related. Taylor developed his theory of scientific management where he made three assumptions in his observation: Man is concerned with maximising money, People are considered as individuals and they can be treated like machines. Taylor had analyzed what motivated people at work which was money. He though workers should be paid for what they worked and pay should be associated to the amount produced Workers who work less would be paid less and Workers who did more than usual would be paid more. The main limitation in Taylors approach is that it overlook that each individual is unique Secondly, money is not an important motivation for everyone. Taylor ignored the fact that people work for reasons other than financial reward. Other theories of motivation have been developed as well which are believed to focus on cognitive or process theories that are how people consider their reward. Expectancy theory distinguishes two factors of value and probability. People value reward according to the level it satisfies their needs of security, community esteem, achievement and autonomy. Armstrong also agrees with the fact that Expectancy is the likelihood that reward depends on effort where there is more effort, the higher the reward but Marchington and Wilkinson (2006, p.325) argue that this is not a fixed and there may be other sets of expectation at different times. For that effort to be useful to the organisation, individuals need to have the correct ability and the right perception of their role. The theory implies that low motivation will be product of jobs where there is little worker control. (Marchington and Wilkinson 2006, p.326) Two other theories of motivation are significant to reflect on. Latham and Locke developed goal theory which describes that both performance and motivation are improved if people have challenging and monitored goals but accepted when there is feedback on performance. On the other hand, Equity Theory which advocates that people are more motivated when they are treated equitably and demotivated if they are treated inequitable while they deserved more than that. 2.4 STRATEGIC REWARDS Reward strategy is a declaration of intent that defines what the organization wants to do in the longer term to develop and implement reward policies, practices and processes that will further the achievement of its business goals and meet the needs of its stakeholders. (Armstrong 2006, p.643) Reward is more than compensation and benefits. Thus, a reward strategy must consider many aspects of the workplace in order to both attract and keep high value employees doing the correct things in the correct way so that they the organisation is successful. Reward policies provide guidelines for the implementation of reward strategies and the design and management of reward process. Basically, every employer must obey four major policies (White Druker 2000): internal alignment, external competitiveness, employee contributions, management of the pay system. Many research and studies on reward strategy has revealed that people are difficult and motivation is a complex process. What is obvious is that while financial reward is essential, for many people other factors are also, and can be more, important. Rewards are designed to promote behaviour that will contribute directly to the achievement of the organisations objective.Reward systems should be in line with the following: HR Strategy Business Strategy Organization Culture The elements of reward management and their interrelationship can be shown in the figure 1.2 Figure 2.2: Rewards management: elements and interrelationships Source: Michael Armstrong, 2006, A Handbook of Human Resources Management Practice, p.630 The elements of a rewards management system are: Job Evaluation Job evaluation is an organized method for defining the relative value or size of jobs within an organisation in order to institute internal relativities. It provides the basis for designing a fair grade and pay structure, grading jobs in the structure, managing job and pay relativities and guiding the success of equal pay for work of equal worth. However, there has been many criticism of job evaluation by some HR practitioners, in the late 1980s and early 1990s A numbers of major charges were made against it in many organisation. Critics argued that it was not only bureaucratic and rigid, but also time-consuming and unsuitable in todays organisations. 2.4.2 Grade and Pay Structure Pay grade is a system indicating rate and shows the rate at which an employee receives basic pay. It is also a means to compare ranks, which may have different names in the different services. Pay grades facilitate the employment method by providing a flat range of salary whereas Pay structure refers to the various levels of pay for jobs or groups of jobs by referring to their point as determined by job evaluation as compare to market rate surveys. it provides scope for pay increment in accordance with competence or contribution. Market Rate Analysis Market rate tell us the actual salary of some jobs. It is determined by the forces of demand and supply of the labour market. If an organisation pays below the market rate then it will probably have trouble in recruiting and retaining suitable staff. To know the market rate an organisation has to do pay surveys. It helps to obtain and keep high quality staff and response to market pressures. There are several ways in which a company can obtain data on market rates such as Local employment agencies, Job centres, Job adverts in national newspapers 2.4.4 Contingent Pay Contingent pay measures what do we value and what we are ready to pay for? It refers pay for individual that is related to performance, competence, contribution or service. Employee Benefits Benefits can be defined as all the indirect financial payments an employee receives for continuing his or her employment with the company. Benefits are generally available to all firms employees and includes such things as time off with pay, health and life insurance, and child care facilities. (Dessler 1997, p503) Today many organisations regard benefits to be an important approach in reward management in order to achieve a competitive advantage in labour markets. Both financial and non-financial benefits play an important function when it comes to attract, keep and motivate employees. As an addition to base pay financial benefits may improve an organisations ability to attract and retain employees, and non-financial benefits allows organisations to meet the specific needs of the employees. Allowances Allowances may be regarded as additional to base pay. Example of it may be meal allowances where some employees in any organsation are given a sum of money for a meal. Performance Management Performance Management refers to a process, which frequently measures work as it occurs. It is a way of obtaining better results by managing performance according to set of planned goals and competency achievements. It motivates people to do the right things by specifying their goal. Non-Financial Rewards It refers to rewards that are not related to pay but rather satisfaction arising from the job itself like recognition, success, responsibility, autonomy, and leadership skill. Total Remuneration Total remuneration refers to all the monetary reward and benefits than an employee received for working in the organisation. Total Rewards A total reward refers to all the rewards that exist like financial aspects of reward of basic pay, any bonuses and additional financial benefits with the non-financial benefits at the personal and organisational level. WorldatWork (2006) introduced a total rewards framework that proposed to advance the concept and help practitioners think and implement in new ways. Today, professionals primarily use the terms total rewards, total compensation or compensation and benefits to describe the joint strategies. There are five elements of total rewards, each of which includes programs, practices, elements and dimensions that together define an organizations strategy to attract, motivate and keep employees. These elements are: Compensation Benefits Work-Life Performance and Recognition Development and Career Opportunities 2.5 INDIVIDUAL REWARD SYSTEM Many sectors of employment use remuneration systems that contain direct relations to individual performance and results. On an individual basis this may be payment by results (PBR) for example bonus, piecework, commission, work-measured schemes and pre-determined motion time systems, measured day work (MDW), appraisal/performance related pay, market-based pay and competency and skills based pay. 2.5.1 Performance Related Pay Performance-related pay (PRP) is a method of remuneration that links pay progression to an assessment of individual performance. Performance pay may be defined as any remuneration practice in which part or all of remuneration is based directly and explicitly on employees assessed work behaviour and/or measured results (Shields 2007, p.348). Performance related pay is generally used where employee performance cannot be appropriately measured in terms of output produced or sales achieved. Like piece-rates and commission, performance related pay is a form of incentive pay. Individual performance is reviewed frequently (usually once per year) against agreed objectives is known as performance appraisal. Then employees are classified into performance groups which determine what the reward will be. The method of reward involves a cash bonus and/or increase in wage rate or salary. However performance related pay is not very understandable in the mind of researchers. Thorpe and Homan (2000) accounts both for research stating that one of the main advantages of performance related pay is that it attract and retain good employee while other research indicates that performance-related pay fails to motivate and that the employees generally regard the performance-related pay system as unfair in practice. Some drawbacks may be rewarding employees individually does very little to encourage teamwork and, such schemes also usually carried out only once a year assessment and payout, which may weaken any incentive effect. If a worker rated less than satisfactory receives no increase at all under an appraisal pay scheme their motivation and morale may be badly affected. Thus, it is important to focus appraisals on the assessment of performance, the identification of training needs and the setting of objectives, not on any dependent pay. 2.5.2 Individual Payment by Results (PBR) The aim of any PBR scheme is to provide a direct relationship between pay and productivity: the more effectively the employee works, the higher their pay. This direct link means that incentives are stronger than in other schemes. However, in recent years traditional bonus, piecework and work-measured schemes have decreased, as many employers have moved to 360-degree feedback, also known as multi-rater feedback that is employee development feedback that comes from all around the employee. Nevertheless, payment by result fails because material shortages or delays can affect production and Individual skills are not rewarded and indeed the most skilled may be put onto more complicated and potentially less rewarding work. 2.5.3 Piecework, Bonus Schemes and Commission Piecework is the easiest method of PBR workers are paid at a particular rate for each piece of output. This means the system is simple to operate and understand, although open to the shortcoming that it is often at the expense of quality. Pieceworkers must be paid at least the national minimum wage. Incentive bonus schemes is where for instance an extra payment is paid when production exceeds the established threshold, or where there is a raise in sales which surpasses given targets. Variable bonuses can also be paid in relation to performances achieved against pre-determined standards so that the higher the performance achieved, the greater the level of bonus produced. However, Armstrong (2006, p.635) mentioned that bonus payment are related to achievement of profit and or to other financial targets. Time rates are used when employees are paid for the quantity of time they spend at work. The common form of time rate is the weekly wage or monthly wage. Generally the time rate is fixed in relation to a standard working week (e.g. 40 hours per week). Time worked above this standard is known as overtime. Overtime is generally paid more than the standard time-rate. It reflects the extra contribution of the employee. The main advantages of time-rate pay are that they are appropriate for organisations that desire to employ workers to present general roles (e.g. financial management, administration, and maintenance) where employee performance is not easy to evaluate. Commission is a payment made to employees based on the value of sales achieved. For example, in sales jobs, the seller may be paid a percentage of the selling price or a flat amount of each unit sold (Werther Davis 1997 p.411). The rate of commission depends on the selling price and the amount of effort required in making the sale. Armstrong (2006, p.638) stated that commission provide a direct financial incentives and attract high performing sales staff. 2.5.4 Measured Day Work Measured day work (MDW) has been developed from both individual PBR and basic wage rate scheme. Salary is constant and does not vary in the short time provided that that the targeted performance is maintained. MDW systems need performance standards to be placed through some framework and undergo modifications as required. It involves full commitment of management, workers and trade unions. The pay structure is regularly formulated by job evaluation and with full employee agreement. MDW is now somewhat unusual. It suits organisations where a high, secure, expected level of performance is required, rather than highest potential individual performance. 2.5.5 Market-Based Pay Market-based pay refers to the salary level available in the market for the same type of work. Factors that help to consider the market rate are: the skills that are necessary are widely accessible, the unemployment level in general versus the employment rate and the jobs requirement for specialised skills. It is usually used in conjunction with other rewarding scheme like performance appraisal, but may be element of a reward strategy integrating several performance elements. 2.5.6 Competency and skills-based pay Competency and skills-based pay schemes are more common nowadays. There a direct relationship between the attainment, development and effective use of skills and competencies and the individuals pay. Competency and skills-based schemes measure what the employee is inputting to the job. Competency based systems have become more popular because many organisations use competencies in staffing and in performance appraisal for non-pay reason, such as training. There is an increasing trend for pay to be associated to the abilities of the individual. Competency based pay is used together with an existing individual performance related pay scheme and will reward them not on the basis of their performance but competencies. Leadership skill or team-working may be examples of competencies. Reward is given for the skills already gained and for the acquirement of new skills that would be helpful in other jobs in the same job band. This can promote multi-skilling and improved flexibility. 2.6 GROUP AND ORGANISATIONAL REWARD SYSTEMS Group pay schemes include those based on the performance of the team, plant or company. Team-based pay gained its importance with the increased interest in teamworking. It reflects the performance of the team. It is not easy to define the team, the goals, and the right reward. Peer group pressure can also be useful in increasing the performance of the whole team. Company based performance pay schemes are based on the whole organisation performance. The most common forms of this system tend to be based on overall profits (profit sharing), gainsharing systems. They are effective where communications and employment relations are good Share incentive plans involve the provision of shares to employees. In the journal of knowledge management, Milkovich and Wigdor, (1991) said: Team-based rewards may potentially result in a loss of motivation because of feelings of inequity due to a perceived free-riding of other team members and the use of an equality principle when allocating rewards rath er than an equity-based principle. (Milne 2007, p.33) 2.6.1 Gainsharing Gainsharing is a pay scheme that links workers pay to the success of organisational goals by rewarding performance above a pre-determined target. This is always led by measures of productivity, performance and quality. Gainsharing aims to develop these indicators by improving communications, staff involvement and promoting teamwork. It should be element of a full long-term strategy to maintain an effective system through involvement and sharing. It may thus be used as a substitute for bonus/piecework schemes, where quality is at times lost to quantity. The whole employees and management who have any association in the product of the organisation should be integrated in any gainshare plan. Marchington and Wilkinson (2006, p. 336) pointed out that such scheme have the merit that employees perceive their contribution to the total effort of the organisation and they do not consider themselves as individual units. They further mentioned that gainsharing plan will affect the role of trade union as their collective bargaining will become less important in determining wages or union will think employees will be more committed to the organiastion. 2.6.2 Profit Sharing Profit Sharing means rewarding employees a percentage of the companys profits. Singh (2006, p 385) defines profit sharing usually involves the determination of organizations profits at the end of the fiscal year and the distribution of a percentage of the profits to workers qualified to share in the earnings. Profit sharing helps employees to form part of oganisation success. However, Beardwell and Holden (1997, p.574) argued that there is little evidence that such schemes have any great consequence on the performance, motivation or attitudes of employees. 2.6.3 Share Ownership Schemes Businesses whose shares are traded on a stock exchange can offer shares to its promising employees. This compensation method can motivate employees to be committed to the business in the long run.There are different schemes available which companies can use to offer shares such as: 22.214.171.124 Share Incentive Schemes Under this scheme employer gives employees shares directly or ask them to buy. This motivates staff to be involved in the performance of the company. The Share Incentive Plan, previously known as the employee share ownership plan. For example, In the UK, a company using an ESOP can give employees shares worth up to Ã £3,000 each year. 126.96.36.199 Savings Related Share Option Schemes (SAYE) All employees and directors benefit from this scheme All scheme members get the right to buy a number of shares (normally at a lower price than their current price) after three, five or seven years. In this period of time, employee members save an expected amount to pay for the shares. If the shares increase in price, employees have a profit when they buy the shares. No income tax is paid on any gains made on these shares. 2.7 INFLUENCES ON PAY DETERMINATION According to Beardwell and Holden (1997 p.555) the pay system is affected by the following: 2.7.1 Beliefs about the Importance of the Job If a job is considered to be of high value, the salary scale of the job will be higher as compared to other jobs. 2.7.2 Personal Characteristics Individual characteristics like age, experience, education, skill affect the salary of a person. 2.7.3 Labour Market The demand and supply of labour affect pay determination. A business will have to match its pay with that of its competitors before setting its own pay structure. 2.7.4 The Strategies and Policies of the Company Each company has it own remuneration policy and strategy that determine the salary of its employees. 2.7.5 Government Rules and Regulation The government usually intervene for the welfare of employees like we have the equal opportunity Act, employment right Act 2008, and the employment relation Act 2008. Organisations have to consider all these Act before setting a fair compensation program. 2.7.6 Power of Bargaining Group Trade union action may affect the pay level. They can bargain for an increase in salary. 2.7.7 Cost of Living Due to high inflation rate, the cost of living tends to increase. Thus, this may affect the salary of employee.
Wednesday, November 13, 2019
The Chlorine Debate: How White Do You Want It? Chlorine is one of the world's most widely used chemicals, the building element vital to almost every United States industry. We use chlorine and chlorine-based products whenever we drink a glass of water, buy food wrapped in plastic, purchase produce in the supermarket, pour bleach into a washing machine, have a prescription filled, print out a computer document like this one, or even drive a car. (Abelson 94) Chlorine, a member of the halogen (salt-forming) group of metallic elements, was first made by Swedish chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele in 1774, who treated hydrochloric acid with manganese dioxide. In 1810, the English chemist Sir Humphrey Davy determined that chlorine was a chemical element and named it from the Greek word meaning greenish-yellow. One hundred and eighty-five years later, chlorine compounds are ubiquitous components in the manufacturing of paper, plastics, insecticides, cleaning fluids, antifreeze, paints, medicines, and petroleum products. The unfortunate and unavoidable by-product of these manufacturing processes is dioxin, one of the most toxic substances on the planet earth. Dioxins are also produced whenever chlorine containing substances, such as PVC, are burned. Life as we know it will change, if a Greenpeace campaign is successful. The powerful environmental group has mounted a well-organized campaign that has as its objective nothing less than a total, worldwide ban on chlorine. With the public health and billions of dollars at stake, the debate over chlorine has become one of the world's most contentious and controversial issues. "Is a chlorine-free future possible?" asked Bonnie Rice, a spokesperson for Greenpeace's Chlorine Free Campaign. "Yes, it can be done without massive disruption of the economy and of society, if it is done in the right matter." (Gossen 94) The chlorine industry and its allies say a total ban on chlorine would be neither wise, possible, nor economically feasible. "We find the chlorine campaign outrageous in its scope and purpose," explained Leo Anziano, the Chairman of the Washington-based Chlorine Chemistry Council, and organization that lobbies on behalf of the chlorine industry. "We believe it's bas... ...ingly undecidable debate, the basis of the debate seems to be the solution. Banning or getting rid of chlorine, organochlorines, or most any other chemical can only cause more problems than they will solve unless a proven and effective alternative is developed to take the place of that chemical. Most everyday things would have to drastically be altered to make suit for a complete chlorine ban, and that would take a great deal of time, effort, and money to do. If a ban on chlorine was implemented, who would be responsible for the cost and maintenance of switching the equipment: the consumer, the producer, Greenpeace and other environmental watch organizations, or the government? The brunt of the cost would most likely fall into the hands of the consumers, which would kill most middle and lower-class families. Chlorine is a building block of most of our everyday conveniences and a major player in most chemical compounds. Until a sturdy and cost-effective alternative is made, most of the everyday consumers will still have to go on using the same chlorine and organochlorine-based products that they have used for years before.
Sunday, November 10, 2019
1. Introduction: To accelerate the progress of sanitation in rural areas, Government of India is implementing from 1.4.2012, the Ã¢â¬ËNirmal Bharat Abhiyan (NBA)Ã¢â¬â¢, a Centrally Sponsored Scheme [earlier Total Sanitation Campaign (TSC)]. Similarly, to provide drinking water to rural population in adequate quantity, the Govt. of India is implementing a centrally sponsored Scheme called the National Rural Drinking Water Programme (NRDWP). New Delhi: The union cabinet Wednesday gave its approval for restructuring of Ã¢â¬Å"Nirmal Bharat AbhiyanÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬ into Ã¢â¬Å"Swachh Bharat MissionÃ¢â¬ . The programme is aimed at creating a clean India by 2019 with peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s participation. Ã¢â¬Å"The cabinet has approved the Swachh Bharat Mission,Ã¢â¬ union Law Minister Ravi Shankar Prasad said here after a cabinet meeting chaired by Prime Minister Narendra Modi. Prasad said the mission will be launched Oct 2, the birth anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi. The prime minister has been striving to make the mission a mass movement. The cabinet also approved a Ã¢â¬Å"Swachh Bharat MissionÃ¢â¬ for urban areas, which will be part of a joint Ã¢â¬Å"Swachh Bharat MissionÃ¢â¬ which has another component for rural areas. The drinking water and sanitation ministry will implement the programme in rural areas while the urban development ministry will do the same in urban areas. Ã¢â¬Å"The Ã¢â¬ËNirmal Bharat AbhiyanÃ¢â¬â¢ will be restructured into the Ã¢â¬ËSwachh Bharat MissionÃ¢â¬â¢ with two sub-missions Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬ËSwachh Bharat MissionÃ¢â¬â¢ (rural) and Ã¢â¬ËSwachh Bharat MissionÃ¢â¬â¢ (urban). Budgetary provisions for the two sub-missions will be provided separately in the demand for grant of the ministries of drinking water and sanitation (for rural) and ministry of urban development (for urban),Ã¢â¬ an official statement said. Ã¢â¬Å"I take this pledge that I will remain committed towards cleanliness and devote time for this. I will devote 100 hours per year Ã¢â¬â that is two hours per week Ã¢â¬â to voluntary work for cleanliness. I will neither litter nor let others litter. I will initiate the quest for cleanliness with myself, myÃ family, my locality, my village and my work place. I believe that the countries of the world that appear clean are so because their citizens donÃ¢â¬â¢t indulge in littering nor do they allow it to happen. With this firm belief, I will propagate the message of Swachh Bharat Mission in villages and towns. I will encourage 100 other persons to take this pledge which I am taking today. I will endeavour to make them devote their 100 hours for cleanliness. I am confident that every step I take towards cleanliness will help in making my country clean.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â Narendra Modi 2. Swachh Bharat Abhiyan: The present goal under NBA is to achieve 100% access to sanitation for all rural households by 2022. Under Swachh Bharat Abhiyan (SBA), the Goal is now pre-phoned to make India Open Defecation Free (ODF) India by 2019 by construction of individual, cluster & community toilets; and villages will be kept clean, including through solid and liquid waste management through Gram Panchayats. Water pipelines have to be laid to all villages enabling tap connection into households on demand by 2019. In this matter, co-operation and convergence of all Ministries, Central & State schemes, CSR & bilateral/multilateral assistance may become necessary as well as new &innovative ways of funding such interventions. In a federal set-up like ours, where sanitation and water are state subjects, it is all the more important that states take the initiative to complete all activities to achieve Swachh Bharat by 2019 by dove-tailing all schemes Ã¢â¬â Central or State. Swachh Bharat Mission: Facts and Figures Project Cost: Rs. 1,96,009 crore Project Start Date: 2nd October 2014 Project Estimated End Date: 2nd October 2019 Ministries Involved in Project: Ministry of rural development, ministry of urban development, ministry of drinking water and sanitation, Public Sector Undertakings ( PSUs), corporations, NGOs, state governments etc. Purpose of Project: To make India a filth-free country in five years, to construct community and public toilets in rural and urban areas, to provide running water supply, to treat waste water, to keep roads, pavements and localities clean etc. 3. BACKGROUND: 3.1 Individual Health and hygiene is largely dependent on adequate availability of drinking water and Proper sanitation. There is, therefore, a direct relationship between water, sanitation and health. Consumption of unsafe drinking water, improper disposal of human excreta, improper environmental Sanitation and lack of personal and food hygiene have been major causes of many diseases in Developing countries. India is no exception to this. Government started the Central Rural Sanitation Programme (CRSP) in 1986 primarily with the objective of improving the quality of life of the rural People and also to provide privacy and dignity to women. 3.2 The concept of sanitation was expanded to include personal hygiene, home sanitation, safe water, Garbage disposal, excreta disposal and waste water disposal. With this broader concept of sanitation, CRSP adopted a Ã¢â¬Å"demand drivenÃ¢â¬ approach with the name Ã¢â¬Å"Total Sanitation CampaignÃ¢â¬ (TSC) with effect From 1999. The revised approach emphasized more on Information, Education and Communication (IEC), Human Resource Development, Capacity Development activities to increase awareness among the rural people and generation of demand for sanitary facilities. This enhanced peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s capacity to Choose appropriate options through alternate delivery mechanisms as per their economic condition. The Programme was implemented with focus on community-led and people centred initiatives. Financial incentives were provided to Below Poverty Line (BPL) households for construction and usage of Individual household latrines (IHHL) in recognition of their achievements. Assistance was also extended for construction of school toilet units, Anganwadi toilets and Community Sanitary Complexes (CSC) apart From undertaking activities under Solid and Liquid Waste Management (SLWM). 3.3 To give a fillip to the TSC, Government of India also launched the Nirmal Gram Puraskar (NGP) that Sought to recognise the achievements and efforts made in ensuring full sanitation coverage. The award Gained immenseÃ popularity and contributed effectively in bringing about a movement in the community for attaining the Nirmal Status thereby significantly adding to the achievements made for increasing the Sanitation coverage in the rural areas of the country. 3.4 Encouraged by the success of NGP, the TSC is being renamed as Ã¢â¬Å"Nirmal Bharat AbhiyanÃ¢â¬ (NBA). The Objective is to accelerate the sanitation coverage in the rural areas so as to comprehensively cover the rural community through renewed strategies and saturation approach. Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan (NBA) envisages covering the entire community for saturated outcomes with a view to create Nirmal Gram Panchayats with following priorities: Provision of Individual Household Latrine (IHHL) of both Below Poverty Line (BPL) and Identified above Poverty Line (APL) households within a Gram Panchayat (GP). Gram Panchayats where all habitations have access to water to be taken up. Priority May be given to Gram Panchayats having functional piped water supply, Provision of sanitation facilities in Government Schools and Anganwadis in Government Buildings within these GPs Solid and Liquid Waste Management (SLWM) for proposed and existing Nirmal Grams Extensive capacity building of the stake holders like Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRIs), Village Water and Sanitation Committees (VWSCs) and field functionaries for Sustainable sanitation. Appropriate convergence with MNREGS with unskilled man-days and skilled man-days 4. OBJECTIVES: The main objectives of the NBA are as under: a) Bring about an improvement in the general quality of life in the rural areas. b) Accelerate sanitation coverage in rural areas to achieve the vision of Nirmal Bharat by 2022 with all gram Panchayats in the country attaining Nirmal status. c) Motivate communities and Panchayati Raj Institutions promoting sustainable sanitation facilities through awareness creation and health education. d) To cover the remaining schools not covered under Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) and Anganwadi Centres in the rural areas with proper sanitation facilities and undertake proactive promotion of Hygiene education and sanitary habits among students. e) Encourage costÃ effective and appropriate technologies for ecologically safe and sustainable Sanitation. f) Develop community managed environmental sanitation systems focusing on solid & liquid waste Management for overall cleanliness in the rural areas. 5. STRATEGY: The strategy is to transform rural India into Ã¢â¬ËNirmal BharatÃ¢â¬â¢ by adopting the Ã¢â¬Ëcommunity ledÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËPeople centredÃ¢â¬â¢ strategies and community saturation approach. A Ã¢â¬Å"demand driven approachÃ¢â¬ is to be continued with emphasis on awareness creation and demand generation for sanitary facilities in houses, Schools and for cleaner environment. Alternate delivery mechanisms would be adopted to meet the Community needs. The provision of incentives for individual household latrine units to the poorest of the poor households has been widened to cover the other needy households too so as to attain Community outcomes. Availability of water in the Gram Panchayat shall be an important factor for sustaining sanitation facilities created. Rural School Sanitation remains a major component and an entry Point for wider acceptance of sanitation by the rural people. Wider technology options are being provided to meet the customer preferences and location- specific needs. Intensive IEC Campaign is the Corner stone of the programme involving Panchayati Raj Institutions, Co-operatives, ASHA, Anganwadi Workers, Women Groups, Self Help Groups, and NGOs etc. A roadmap for engagement of corporate houses is being introduced. More transparent system involving social audit and active peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s participation in the implementation process of NBA is being introduced. Convergence with MNREGS shall also be Important to facilitate the rural households with fund availability for creating their own sanitation Facilities. 6. IMPLEMENTATION: The Guidelines of NBA and the provisions hereunder are applicable with effect from 01.04.2012. Implementation of NBA is proposed with Ã¢â¬ËGram Panchayat Ã¢â¬Ëas the base unit. A project proposal that Emanates from a district is scrutinized and consolidated by the State Government and transmitted to The Government of India (Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation) as a State Plan. NBA is to be Implemented in phases with start-up activities. Funds areÃ to be made available for preliminary IEC work. The physical implementation gets oriented towards satisfying the felt-needs, wherein individual Households choose from a menu of options for their household latrines. The built-in flexibility in the Menu of options gives the poor and the disadvantaged families opportunity for subsequent up gradation Depending upon their requirements and financial position. In the Ã¢â¬Å"campaign approachÃ¢â¬ , a synergistic Interaction between the Government agencies and other stakeholders is essential. To bring about the desired behavioural changes for relevant sanitary practices, intensive IEC and advocacy, with Participation of NGOs/ Panchayati Raj Institutions/resource organizations is envisaged. NBA will be implemented with a district as the project. The States/UTs are expected to Prepare/revise NBA Projects for all the districts, consolidate at State level as State Plan and submit Before the Government of India. 7. COMPONENTS OF NBA The Programme components and activities for NBA implementation are as follows: (a) Start-Up Activities: The start-up activities include a. Conducting of preliminary survey to assess the status of sanitation and hygiene practices. b. Base line survey. c. Orientation of key personnel at the district/GP level. d. Preparation of State Plan. The cost of Start-up activities will be met from the IEC funds up to Rs. 10 Lakh. Additional fund. Requirement, if any, shall be met by the State. (b) IEC Activities: Information, Education and Communication (IEC) are important components of the Programme. These intend to trigger the demand for sanitary facilities in the rural areas for households, schools, Anganwadis and Community Sanitary Complexes through behavioural change. The activities carried out under these components should be area specific and should also involve all sections of the rural Population. IEC is not a one-time activity. IECÃ strategy and plan to be drawn to include creation of Demand leading to construction and use in a sustained manner. IEC should be conducted at all tiers i.e. Districts, Blocks and Gram Panchayat. A national communication strategy framework has been developed by Government of India giving Emphasis on Inter Personal Communication (IPC) at the grassroots level. The states are to evolve their own strategy using folk media, mass media and also outdoor media like wall painting, hoarding etc. The IEC should also focus on health and hygiene practices and environmental sanitation aspects. Interpersonal communication and door to door to door contact are recognised as the most Significant tools for attaining the programme goals. In order to strengthen communication machinery at the village level with participatory social mobilization, guidelines for engagement of village level Motivators (Swachchhata Doot / Sanitation Messengers) have been issued separately. As part of this Strategy, in addition to Swachchhata Doots, field functionaries like Bharat Nirman Volunteers, ASHA, Anganwadi workers, School Teachers etc. can also be engaged at the village level for demand creation and taking up behaviour change communication. The motivator can be given suitable incentive from the Funds earmarked for IEC. The incentive will be performance based i.e. in terms of motivating the Number of households and schools/ Anganwadis to construct latrines and use them. Each project district should prepare a detailed IEC plan along with the Annual Action Plan with Defined strategies to reach all sections of the community. The aim of such a communication plan is to motivate rural people to adopt hygiene behaviour as a way of life and thereby develop and maintain all Facilities created under the programme. The Annual IEC Action Plan should be duly approved by the DWSC/DWSM. The Communication and Capacity Development Units (CCDUs) / Water and Sanitation Support Organisations (WSSOs) set up at the state level must support the districts in developing a good IEC plan and also in implementing it. Observance of Sanitation Day/ Sanitation Week / Sanitation Fortnight should be essential component of the Annual Action Plan. For effective dissemination of the IEC material, funds may also be provided under this component To blocks and gram Panchayats for execution of works. The development of such material executed by the Panchayats may be standardized by the district or the CCDU. The IEC funds should be broadly divided into pre Nirmal and Post- Nirmal phase so as to have Funds for sustaining the movement. The project districts, however, shall have the flexibility of deciding this division depending on the baseline survey reports and rate of acceleration of sanitation coverage. Funds available under IEC may be used for imparting hygiene education to the rural communities, General public, as well as children in schools. The IEC plan should include a component for rising Awareness among school going children, teachers and PTAs. IEC funding will be in the ratio of 80:20 between GOI and the State Governments and the total IEC Cost including start up grant will be limited to 15% of the total project cost. (c) Capacity Building: This component is for training of VWSC and PRI members, block and district functionaries and Grass root functionaries like ASHA and other health, education and related functionaries, Anganwadi Workers etc. SHGs can be trained in trades such as masonry work, brick-making, toilet pan making and Plumbing etc. as also for awareness raising activities. NGOs/CBOs of repute can be engaged for this Activity. State Resource Centres and Regional / District Resource Centres should be identified for Conducting such trainings. Capacity building funding will be in the ratio of 80:20 between GOI and the State Governments and will be limited to 2% of the IEC budget. (d) Construction of Individual Household Latrines: A duly completed household sanitary latrine shall comprise of a Toilet UnitÃ including a super Structure. The programme is aimed to cover all the rural families. Incentive as provided under the Scheme may be extended to all Below Poverty Line (BPL) Households and Above Poverty Line Households (APL) restricted to SCs/STs, small and marginal farmers, landless labourers with homestead, physically handicapped and women headed households. The construction of household toilets should be undertaken by the household itself and on completion and use of the toilet; the cash incentive can be given to the household in recognition of its achievement. The incentive amount to Below Poverty Line (BPL) household/identified APLs for construction of one unit of IHHL shall be Rs.4600.00n (Rs.5100.00 for difficult and hilly areas). The central share out of this shall be Rs.3200.00 (Rs.3700.00 in case of hilly and difficult areas) and State Government share shall Be Rs.1400.00. Minimum beneficiary share shall be Rs.900.00 in cash or labour. State Governments are allowed the flexibility to provide higher incentive for a household toilet, of the same or higher unit costs from their own funds. All houses constructed with the central or/and state assistance should invariably Have suitable sanitation facility as an integral part. However, all houses constructed by the beneficiaries Under Indira Awas Yojana (IAY) or any other state rural housing scheme which did not have toilets shall also be eligible for the incentive as above for creation of sanitation facilities for the targeted groups Under NBA. APL families not covered by the above incentives will take up construction of the household Latrines on their own through motivation. The IEC activities will provide comprehensive coverage to all the families in the GP without exceptions. APL families facing cash crunch may access the revolving fund as outlined in the guidelines. Construction of bucket latrines is not permitted in the rural areas. The existing bucket latrines, if any, should be converted to sanitary latrines and the sharing pattern for incentive for the targeted Beneficiaries shall be identical to that of construction of individual house hold latrines. Ministry of Rural Development notification Number S.O.l022 (E) datedÃ 04.05.2012 regarding Convergence of TSC with MNREGS will be mutatis mutandis applicable for convergence with NBA. (e) Rural Sanitary Marts and Production Centers: The Rural Sanitary Mart is an outlet dealing with the materials, hardware and designs required for The construction of sanitary latrines, soakage and compost pits, vermi-composting, washing platforms, Certified domestic water filters and other sanitation & hygiene accessories required. RSMs should Ensure that a variety of pans (ceramic, mosaic, HDP, fiberglass) are available for choice by the Beneficiaries. RSM should necessarily have those items, which are required as a part of the sanitation Package. It is a commercial venture with a social objective. The main aim of having a RSM is to provide Materials, services and guidance needed for constructing different types of latrines and other sanitary Facilities for a clean environment. Production Centers are the means to produce cost effective affordable Sanitary materials at the local level. They could be independent or part of the RSMs. The Production Centers/Rural Sanitary Marts could be opened and operated by SHGs / women Organizations/Panchayats/NGOs etc. Support of private entrepreneurs may also be taken for ensuring An effective supply chain. DWSM/DWSC should have a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with the RSMs/PCs along with A system of joint monitoring evolved to ensure that the RSMs & PCs are on track with production plans As per requirement. RSMs should have a method of quality certification of its products and a band of Trained masons and motivators. Quality standards (where notified by BIS or by MoDWS) for each of the items of purchase should Be strictly adhered to. An interest free loan up to Rs.3.5 lakh can be given for establishing RSM/PC out of revolving fund Available with the district. In case more RSMs are required, a maximum of up to Rs.35 Lakh from the Revolving Fund can be utilized for this purpose. Loans from the revolving fund for RSM/PC shall be Recovered in 12-18 instalments after one year from the date of receiving theÃ loan. (f) Provision of Revolving Fund in the District The revolving fund may be given to Cooperative Societies or Self Help Groups whose Creditworthiness is established, for providing cheap finance to their members. Loan from this fund Should be recovered in 12-18 instalments. NBA projects will have the flexibility to decide the other Terms and conditions for sanction of the revolving fund. This revolving fund can be accessed by APL Households not covered for incentives under the guidelines. Loan can also be given to the owner of the Household where Anganwadi centre is located for construction of baby friendly toilet provided the ICDS Authorities agree to refund the loan from the rent paid to the house owner. 5% of the District project Outlay subject to a sum of up to Rs.50 Lakh, can be used as revolving fund. The revolving fund is shared Between Centre and State on an 80:20 basis. (g) Community Sanitary Complex: Community Sanitary Complex is an integral component of the NBA. These Complexes, comprising An appropriate number of toilet seats, bathing cubicles, washing platforms, Wash basins etc., can be set Up in a place in the village acceptable and accessible to all. Ordinarily such complexes should be Constructed only when there is lack of space in the village for construction of household toilets and the Community owns up the responsibility of their operation and maintenance. The ultimate aim is to Ensure construction of maximum IHHLs and construction of community complexes will be restricted to Only when IHHLs cannot be constructed, for whatever reason, and also teach the community of Ã¢â¬Å"Hygiene practicesÃ¢â¬ . The maintenance of such complexes is very essential for which Gram Panchayat Should own the ultimate responsibility. User families may be asked to contribute a reasonable monthly User charge for cleaning & maintenance. The proposal for putting up CSC will be approved by the National Scheme Sanctioning Committee (NSSC). Such complexes can also be made at public places, Markets, etc. where large scale congregation of people takes place. Suitable maintenance guidelines May be adopted by the community to ensure proper maintenance of the complex. Maximum unit cost prescribed for a community sanitary complex is up to Rs.2 lakh. Sharing Pattern amongst Central Government, State Government and the community is in the ratio of 60:30:10. The community contribution, however, can be made by the Panchayat out of its own resources, from Grants of the Thirteenth Finance Commission or from any other fund of the State duly permitted by it. (h) Institutional Toilets: Children could be a good channel to influence parents to adopt proper sanitary habits. Children are More receptive to new ideas. Schools/Anganwadis are appropriate institutions for changing the Behaviour, mind-set and habits of children from open defecation to the use of lavatory through Motivation and education. School Toilets: Toilets in all types of Government Schools should be constructed. Emphasis should be given to Toilets for Girls in Schools. Toilet should provide access opportunity to children with special needs. A Toilet unit consists of a toilet and minimum of two urinals. Separate toilet units for girls and boys should Be provided in all co-educational schools, which are to be treated as two separate units and each unit is Entitled to Central assistance. The number of toilet units to be constructed should be adequate to meet The requirements of the school as per the strength of the students attending the school. State/UT Governments, Parent-Teachers Association and Panchayats are free to contribute from their own Resources over and above the prescribed amount. In addition to creation of hardware in the schools, it is essential that hygiene education is imparted To the children on all aspects of hygiene. For this purpose, at least one teacher in each school must be Trained in hygiene education who in turn should train the children through interesting activities and Community projects that emphasize hygiene behaviour. The expenditure for this purpose can be met From the IEC fund earmarked for the project. The district and Panchayat implementing agencies should EnsureÃ good coordination with Department of Education and Health & other partners in order to fulfil The objective of SSHE i.e. to provide a safe, healthy learning environment to all children. The Central assistance per unit will be restricted to 70 percent for a unit cost of Rs.35,000 (Rs.38,500 in case of hilly and difficult areas). Funding for School Sanitation in a NBA Project is provided By the Central and State Government in the ratio of 70:30. Anganwadi Toilets: In order to in still the practice of using a toilet in children from very early stage in life, it is essential That Anganwadis are used as a platform of behaviour change for the children as well as the mothers. For This purpose, each Anganwadi should be provided with a baby friendly toilet. Since there are a large Number of Anganwadis operating from private premises, following strategy may be adopted: a) In all the Anganwadis, which are in Government buildings, baby friendly toilets should be Constructed from the NBA funds provided. b) In those Anganwadis, which are in private buildings, the owner must be asked to construct The toilet as per design, and, he/she may be allowed to charge enhanced rent for the Building to recover the cost of construction. c) Alternatively, the toilet may be constructed from revolving fund component under the NBA And, suitable deductions made from the monthly rental paid to the owner to recover the Cost over a period of time. Unit cost of a toilet shall be up to Rs.8,000 (Rs.10,000 in case of hilly and difficult areas) for each Anganwadi in the rural areas. Financial assistance to be given by Government of India will be restricted To Rs.5,600 (Rs.7,000 in case of hilly and difficult areas). Additional expenses can be met by the State Government, Panchayats or funds from Thirteenth Finance Commission, MPLADS, MLALADS, MNREGS Etc. Construction of Anganwadi toilets is to be prioritised in the 200 high focused districts to assist in Tackling the issue of malnutrition. All government buildings constructed with financial support of the Centre must have appropriate Sanitation facilities under the respective schemes as an integral component of the scheme. This is Considered essential to achieve the vision of Ã¢â¬ËNIRMAL BHARATÃ¢â¬â¢.
Friday, November 8, 2019
Sparta essays Sparta was a well known city-state in the low hills of the west bank of the Eurotas River. The Spartan terriotory was made up of the provinces of Laconia and Messenia. In 800bc, Sparta was a monarchy with a limited oligarchy. However, in 725bc, the Spartans were in need of land for their vast growth of people. So, they marched over to the Taygetos mountains and joined all their territory with the Messinians by conquering al their land. The Messenians did not appreciate their loss of independence, so they revolted against the Spartans. Almost in a defeat, the Spartans invented a new political system: they turned their city-state into what amounts to a military state. This in turn made the Spartans known for their brutality, armed camps. Not being able to be destroyed for 300 centuries. The Spartan society was divided into 3 main classes. At the top, the Spartiate, served in the army and was the only class of people who enjoyed the full political and legal rights of the state. The middle class consisted of the perioeci. Theses were foreigners in which did all the trade and commerce of the city-state. Because their jobs were so vital, they were allowed a great amount of freedom. The lowest class consisted of the helots. Near like slaves, who sis all the farm work for their Spartan masters under forced labor. It was up to the council to decide when each child was born whether it would was healthy or not. If decided unhealthy, the babies were left on a hill to die. The healthy boy, was left to live. By the age of seven the child was to be put into military training. By the age of twenty they were to joined the armed forces. At the age of thirty they were to be married. And finally at the age of sixty the men were allowed to retire. The females took up gymanastics and wrestling. They were allowed to own land under their names, to shop to have opinions in the state, but they were not allowe do tbe apart of the council. ...
Wednesday, November 6, 2019
Freedom Of The City Monologue Essay Example Freedom Of The City Monologue Paper Freedom Of The City Monologue Paper Dont ask me nothing, young feels. Ive no head. All do is march. And if you want to know why you should be marching you ask the buck inside. Me? Sure everybody was marching the day Well, for the same reason as everybody else. My reasons no different to anybody elses. Wan man wan vote -thats what I want. You know -wan man wan vote. Sure I know that. Sure I know we got it. Gerrymandering- thats another thing- no more gerrymandering- thats what I want- no more gerrymandering. And civil rights for everybody- thats what I ant- you know- civil rights- civil rights- thefts why march. Im a liar then? Youre calling me a liar, is that it? Hell be telling me my name isnt Lily Doherty next. Did you ever hear off Mongol child, Skinner? Told you a lie about our Declare. Thats what Declare is. Hess not just shy , our Declare. Hes a Mongol. And its for him I go on all the civil rights marches. Isnt that stupid? You and him and everybody else else marching and protesting about sensible things like politics and stuff and me in the middle of you all, marching for Declare. : Isnt that the stupidest thing you ever heard? Sure I could march and protest from here to Dublin and sure what good would it do Declare? Stupid and all as am know that much. But still march- every Sunday. Isnt that the stupidest thing you ever heard? Thats what the chairman said when l- you know- when tried to tell him what was thinking. He never talks about him; you cant even look at him. And that day thefts what he said, Youre a bone stupid bitchy. No wonder the kids bone stupid too. The chairman- thats what he said.
Monday, November 4, 2019
Exam - Assignment Example With time, this aggregate demand affects the allocation of resources and the productive capacity of an economy through its influence on the returns to factors of production, the development of human capital, the allocation of capital spending, and investment in technological innovations. Tax rates, through their effects on the net returns to labor, saving, and investment, also influences both the magnitude and the allocation of productive capacity. Macroeconomics has long featured two general views of the economy and the ability of fiscal policy to stabilize or even affect economic activity. The equilibrium view sees the economy quickly returning to full capacity whenever disturbances displace it from full employment. Accordingly, changes in fiscal policy, or even in monetary policy for that matter, have little potential for stabilizing the economy. Instead, inevitable delays in recognizing economic disturbances, in enacting a fiscal response, and in the economyÃ¢â¬â¢s reacting to the change in policy can aggravate, rather than diminish, business-cycle fluctuations. An alternative view sees critical market failures causing the economy to adjust with more difficulty to these disturbances (Ellis p 163). If, for example, consumers were to reduce their current spending in order to consume more in the future, producers, who would not know the consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ future plans for want of the appropriate futures markets for goods and services, would see only an indefinite drop in demand, and this might encourage them, in turn, to reduce their hiring and capital spending. In this world, changes in fiscal and monetary policy have greater potential for stabilizing aggregate demand and economic activity. How the economy reacts to fiscal policy depends on whether it is at full employment or operating below its full capacity. Wages and prices will start going up at great rates if monetary policy creates demand enough to enhance capital and labor markets beyond its long-run goals. A monetary policy that constantly attempts to its halve its short-term rates at an all time low will at the end achieve higher inflation will have no fixed increases in the growth of output or reduction in unemployment. In the long run, monetary policy cannot set employment and output. As there is a trade-off seen between lower unemployment and higher inflation in the short run, this trade-off will not be in the long run. This policy will also affect inflation directly through the peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s expected future inflation. If for example the fed eases the monetary policy and consumers and businesspeople figure it out, that will lead to higher inflation in the future and they will ask for an increment in their wages and prices. That will heighten inflation without great changes in output and employment. National saving provides the resources for a nation to invest domestically and abroad. Domestic investment in new factories and equipment can boost productivity of the nationÃ¢ â¬â¢s workforce. Increased worker productivity, in turn, leads to higher real wages and greater economic growth over the long term. U.S. investment abroad does not add to the domestic capital stock used by U.S. workers to produce goods and services. U.S. investment abroad does increase the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s wealth and will generate income adding to U.S. GNP. When national saving is lower than domestic investment, a nation can borrow from foreign savers to make up
Friday, November 1, 2019
Compare the cultural revolution called for in the Futurist Manifesto with the political revolution of the Plan of Potosi - Essay Example The Plan of San Luis Potosi, on the other hand, is a statement made by Francisco Madero, a leader of the political opposition in Mexico when the country was under the grip of a dictator, Porfirio Diaz. In the statement, Madero explicitly expressed the necessity of a revolution that would oust the dictator and establish a truly democratic government. Although both authors apparently wrote their respective pieces to promote revolutions, they do have significant differences in terms social analysis, objectives, methods, and perspectives. The fact that one is essentially cultural, while the other is political, is already a major factor in the difference between the two. Before Marinetti explained the concepts he is promoting in the Manifesto, he made an effort to first express his sentiments regarding the realities in Italian society then. It is apparent that he had nothing but harsh criticisms for the peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s continuing reverence of items of antiquity. He believes that people sh ould no longer adulate anything that is a remnant of a bygone era because this only tends to obstruct the rapid pace of development. He writes: Ã¢â¬Å"what is the use of looking behind at the moment when we must open the mysterious shutters of the impossible?Ã¢â¬ (Marinetti) However, Marinetti clearly goes to the extreme, when he considers that humane concepts are also outmoded. Clearly, this cultural revolution that he proposes is radical in a sense that it essentially seeks the eradication of what has been considered characteristically human: compassion. In place of love and compassion, which Marinetti believes are traits that can only be attributed to the weaknesses of humans, are hatred and violence. In explaining his agenda, Marinetti points out that all things that symbolize so-called glories of the past, including cemeteries and museums, should be destroyed so that futurism can be advanced. He asserts that Ã¢â¬Å"daily visits to museums, libraries and academies (those ceme teries of wasted effort, calvaries of crucified dreams, registers of false starts) is for artists what prolonged supervision by the parents is for intelligent young men, drunk with their own talent and ambition.Ã¢â¬ (Marinetti) In order to achieve what he envisions, Marinetti endorses the use of violence or war. For him, total destruction of the old through the use of violent force is the prerequisite to the realization of futurism. Madero, on the other hand, puts forward the idea of launching a political revolution against the Diaz dictatorship in his country, Mexico. Madero expounds the bases of the revolution in the article Plan of San Luis Potosi. The Mexican people have suffered much under the undemocratic rule of the current regime. Their basic civil and political rights have been violated many times, the most glaring example of which is the anomalous election results that led to the failed attempt of Madero to take the presidency. Madero denounces the Diaz promise of achie ving peace without democracy. He writes that it is Ã¢â¬Å"a peace full of shame for the Mexican nation, because its basis is not law, but force; because its object is not the aggrandizement and prosperity of the country, but to enrich a small group who, abusing their influence, have converted the public charges into fountains of exclusively personal benefit, unscrupulously