Sunday, March 31, 2019

Alien Hand Syndrome: Causes and Effects

estrange Hand Syndrome Causes and effectsNia HelyarWhat is Alien Hand Syndrome and why does it occur? Discuss in telling to iodine or more case studies.Alien pass off syndrome is an intermittent involuntary disorder whereby the attain acts of its decl ar free im burst. However, foreign muckle syndrome is non consistently or precisely defined. Alien submit syndrome describes complex, goal-directed activity in one run that is not voluntarily initiated by the individual but is well executed (Mark, 2007). This syndrome is an extremely bewilder phenomenon stimulated by headway-damaged endurings whereby their weapon performs purposeful saves without the intention of the persevering (Biran, et al., 2006). The patient is ineffective to explain the exact source of movement from the pot and whitethorn actually consider the impart to hasten a mind of its own (Mark, 2007).It is caused by lesions to the facade lobes and corpus callosum (Banks et al., 1989) and generally f ollows acute focal noetic injury. The most common causes ar cerebral hemispheric stroke, severe brain damage or damage to the corpus callosum such as in surgical procedure, which is used to treat severe epilepsy. The corpus callosum connects the two hemispheres, therefore surgery to this area of the brain digest lead there to be slight or no communication between the hemispheres which offer lead to branchs performing of their own accord. Alien pay syndrome can also be seen in patients who suffer from a variety of degenerative, dementing cerebral disorders such as Alzheimers (Mark, 2007). Due to the numerous different causes of terra incognita progress to syndrome there are some variations of the condition. Therefore, it has been that alien hand syndrome is an umbrella term for a mingled set of symptoms (Chokar et al., 2014).There have been reports of patients who were unable to stop their alien hand from grabbing and seizing nearby objects without any allow foring from their body (Kumral, 2001). This can be seen by the study of patient JC, a 56 year previous(a) man who had suffered from a left hand hemispheric stroke, with damage extending to the corpus callosum. quadruplet weeks after his stroke he complained of peculiar un directled movements of his hand. His hand would do things as though it has a mind of its own such as playing with light switches, grasping and holding things. In many situations the patient found themselves in the situation where the right hand opposed the left hand without the patient choosing to do so. Furthermore, the alien hand caused the patient bar in eating because of the opposing conduct of the right and left hand (Biran, Giovannetti, Buxbaum, Chatterjee 2006).Often, a patient has to use their different willing hand to look upon open their fingers and release the object which the alien hand has grasped (Kumral, 2001). Patients observe and experience their own limbs carrying out purposeful behaviours over which t hey have no or very little control. In one case it was noted that a patient had picked up a pencil and begun scribbling with the right hand. She indicated she had not initiated the action with the right arm, she experienced a notioning of dissociation from the actions of the right arm, stating that it will not do what I want it to do (Goldberg et al.1981).This alien limb may disrupt movements of the other limb that is actually responding to the intentions of the patient (Akelaitis, 1944-45). Patients can experience their limbs acting without being guided by their own will (Bogen, 1993, fisher, 2000). Bogen, J. E. (1993) found his alien hand undoing the buttons of his shirt even as his healthy limb tried to button the shirt. The fallible limb is cognise to not even rest during sleep in some cases and patients with alien hand syndrome have woken up to find their alien limbs choking them (Banks et al, 1989). In one case the patients left hand would tenaciously grope for and grasp a ny nearby object, pick and pull at her c bundlehes, and even grasp her throat during sleep . . . . She slept with the arm tied to check nocturnal misbehaviour. However, she never denied that her hand belonged to her (Banks et al. 1989). This is an important part of this syndrome that the patient does not deny responsibility for the hand or the behaviour that it carries out.Two types of behaviour are displayed with this syndrome, repetitive involuntary grasping and unilateral goal-directed limb behaviour. Patients clearly recognize that there is a discrepancy between what the hand is doing and their desired actions. The patients are upset by the actions of the hand and will often try to prevent it from moving by grasping it firmly with the other hand (Frith, 2000). MP was a patient who had an operation to repair a ruptured aneurysm of the anterior communication artery. Within two years she was unable to live independently with her family due to the way in which the alien hand syndr ome was affecting her life (Sala, 1998).An alien hand sufferer can feel normal sensation in the hand, but believes that the hand, while still part of their body, behaves in a manner that is totally distinct from them. They feel that they have no control over the movements of their alien hand but that, instead, the hand has the capability of acting independent of their conscious control. Alien hands can perform complex acts such as removing clothing which can be seen from examples above. Sometimes the sufferer will not be aware of what the hand is doing until it is brought to his or her attention. Patients frequently report astonishment and frustration at these errant limbs.Overall, alien hand syndrome is difficult to explain as there are many different causes and symptoms that can be described as this condition. However, one symptom that is apparent throughout the many case studies is that the alien hand acts against the willing of the patient. The condition is extremely complex and even though many causes are symptoms are known there is still a lot to learn about it. Further research is therefore required.Word aim 987ReferencesAkelaitis, A. (19441945). Studies on the corpus callosum. IV. Diagonistic dyspraxia in epileptics following partial and complete piece of the corpus callosum. American Journal of Psychiatry, 101, 594599.Biran, I., Giovannetti, T., Buxbaum, L., Chatterjee, A. (2006). The alien hand syndrome What makes the alien hand alien?.Cognitive Neuropsychology,23(4), 563-582.Chokar, G., Cerase, A., Gough, A., Hasan, S., Scullion, D., El-Sayeh, H., Buccoliero, R. (2014). A case of ParryRomberg syndrome and alien hand.Journal of the neurological sciences,341(1), 153-157.Farrage, A. D. Alien hand syndrome. http//the-medical-dictionary.com/alien_hand_syndrome_article_5.htmFisher, C. M. (2000). Alien hand phenomena A review with the addition of hexad personal cases. The Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences, 27, 192203.Frith, C. D., Wolpert, D. M. (2000). Abnormalities in the awareness and control of action.Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B Biological Sciences,355(1404), 1771-1788.Goldberg, G., Mayer, N. H. Toglia, J. U. 1981 Medial frontal cortex and the alien hand sign. Arch. Neurol. 38, 683-686.Kumral, E. (2001). Compulsive grasping hand syndrome A variant of anarchic hand. Neurology, 57, 21432144.Mark, V. W. (2007). Alien hand syndrome. InMedLink neurology(pp. 418-421). MedLink Corporation San Diego.Parkin, A. J. (1996). The alien hand.Methods in madness case studies in cognitive neuropsychiatry, 173-183.Sala, C. M. S. D. (1998). Disentangling the alien and anarchic hand.Cognitive neuropsychiatry,3(3), 191-207.1

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